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Ancient China



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Ancient China (also referred to as Anchient or Anciente China in earlier translations) is a very old civilization. People wrote about the history of China 3500 years ago. China is one of the world's oldest continuous (still alive) civilizations. Turtle shells with writing like ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty (商朝) have been carbon dated to about 1500 BC. They say that China began as city-states in the Yellow River valley. Many people say that China became a big Kingdom or Empire in 221 BC. The Qin (�? emperor Qin Shi Huang made everyone write the same way. He also had ideas about the state which he based on legalism and fought Confucianism. This began what we call the Chinese civilization. Ancient China fought wars and Civil wars and was also sometimes conquered by other people.

Chinese civilization originated in various regional centers along both the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era, but the Yellow River is said to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations.[1] The written history of China can be found as early as the Shang Dynasty (c. 1700�?046 BC),[2] although ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian (ca. 100 BC) and Bamboo Annals assert the existence of a Xia Dynasty before the Shang.[2][3] Much of Chinese culture, literature and philosophy further developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045�?56 BC).

The Zhou Dynasty began to bow to external and internal pressures in the 8th century BC, and the kingdom eventually broke apart into smaller states, beginning in the Spring and Autumn Period and reaching full expression in the Warring States period. This is one of multiple periods of failed statehood in Chinese history (the most recent of which was the Chinese Civil War).

In between eras of multiple kingdoms and warlordism, Chinese dynasties have ruled parts or all of China; in some eras, including the present, control has stretched as far as Xinjiang and/or Tibet. This practice began with the Qin Dynasty: in 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire. Successive dynasties in Chinese history developed bureaucratic systems that enabled the Emperor of China to directly control vast territories.

The conventional view of Chinese history is that of alternating periods of political unity and disunity, with China occasionally being dominated by steppe peoples, most of whom were in turn assimilated into the Han Chinese population. Cultural and political influences from many parts of Asia, carried by successive waves of immigration, expansion, and cultural assimilation, are part of the modern culture of China.

Timeline

  • 3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors - 50,000-2000 BC
  • Xia Dynasty - 2000 - 1600 BC (not sure, Xia Dynasty did not have words)
  • Shang Dynasty ( or Yin Dynasty) - 1600 - 1046 (not sure)
  • Zhou Dynasty -
    • Western Zhou -1046 - 771 BC
    • Eastern Zhou-
      • Spring and Autumn period - 771- 481 BC
      • Warring States period - 481- 221 BC
  • Qin Dynasty -221-206 BC
  • Han Dynasty -206 BC - AD 220
    • Western Han - 206 BC - AD 8
    • Xin Dynasty - 8 - 23 AD
  • Three Kingdoms -
    • The Kingdom of Wei - 220 - 265 AD
    • The Kingdom of Shu - 221 - 263 AD
    • The Kingdom of Wu - 229 - 280 AD
  • Jin Dynasty -
    • Western Jin - 265 - 316 AD
    • Eastern Jin - 317 - 460 AD
  • The Sixteen Kingdoms -
    • "Former Zhao" or "Han Zhao"- 304 - 329 AD
    • "Cheng Han" or "Former Shu"- 306 - 347 AD
    • Former Liang - 314 - 376 AD
    • "Later Zhao" or "Shi Zhao" - 319 - 351 AD
    • Former Yan - 334 - 3701 AD
    • "Former Qin" or "Fu Qin" - 351 - 394 AD
    • Later Yan - 384 - 409 AD
    • "Later Qin" or "Iau Qin" - 384 - 417 AD
    • Western Qin - 385 - 431 AD
    • "Later Liang" or "Lu Liang" - 389 - 403 AD
    • Southern Liang - 397 - 414 AD
    • Southern Yan - 398 - 410 AD
    • Western Liang - 400 - 421 AD
    • Northern Liang - 401 - 439 AD
    • "Xia" or "Hu Xia" - 407 - 431 AD
    • "Northern Yan" or "Feng Yan" - 409 - 436 AD

The countries below are not included in the sixteen kingdoms:

    • Former Chouchi - 296 - 371 AD
    • Later Chouchi - 385 - 443 AD
    • Dai - 315 -376 AD
    • Ran Wei - 350 - 352 AD
    • Western Yan - 384 -394 AD
    • Zhai Wei - 388 - 392 AD
    • Western Shu - 405 - 413 AD
    • Yuwenbu - 302 - 344 AD
    • Duanbu - 310 - 357 AD
    • Tuguhun - 313 - 633 AD
  • Southern and Northern Dyanasties -
    • Southern Dynasties -
      • Song - 420 - 479 AD
      • Chi - 479 - 502 AD
      • Liang - 502 - 557 AD
      • Chen - 557 - 589 AD
    • Northern Dynasties -
      • Northern Wei - 386 - 534 AD
      • Eastern Wei - 534 - 550 AD
      • Western Wei - 535 - 557 AD
      • Northern Chi - 550 - 557 AD
      • Northern Chou - 557 -581 AD
  • Sui Dynasty - 581-618 AD
  • T'ang Dynasty - 618-907 AD
    • Tang Dynasty had been interrupted by Wu Chou - 690 - 705 AD
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms -
    • Five Dynasties -
      • Later Liang - 907 - 923 AD
      • Later Tang - 923 - 936 AD
      • Later Jin - 936 - 947 AD
      • Later Han - 947 - 950 AD
      • Later Chou - 951 - 960 AD
    • Ten Kingdoms -
      • Wu Yue - 904 -978 AD
      • Min (changed its name to Yin at 943 AD) - 909 - 945 AD
      • Jinnan - 907 - 963 AD
      • Chu - 897 - 951 AD
      • Wu - 904 - 973 AD
      • Southern Tang - 937 - 975 AD
      • Southern Han - 917 - 971 AD
      • Northern Han - 951 - 979 AD
      • Former Shu - 907 - 925 AD
      • Later Shu - 934 - 965 AD
    • And other regimes -
      • Dingnan Jiedu - 881 - 982 AD
      • Fongshang Jiedu (or Chi) - 887 - 924 AD
      • Lulong Jiedu (or Yan) - 897 - 913 AD
      • Chender Jiedu (or Zhao) - 883 - 921 AD
      • Yiwu Jiedu - 900(?) - 922 AD and 928 - 929 AD
      • Wuping Jiedu (or Hunan Jiedu) - 950 - 963 AD
      • Chinyuan Jiedu - 946 - 978 AD
      • Hexi Regime - ?
  • Song Dynasty -
    • Northern Song - 960 - 1127 AD
    • Southern Song - 1127 - 1279 AD
  • Liao Dynasty (or Khitan) - 907 - 1125 AD
    • After the Gin Dynasty ends the Liao Dynasty, Yelü Dashi, an aristocrat of Liao, rebuilded the Liao Dynasty, we call it Western Liao, also known as Kara-Khitan Khanate - 1132 - 1218 AD
  • Gin Dynasty - 1115 - 1234 AD
  • Western Xia - 1038 - 1227 AD
  • Yuan Dynasty (Actually the Mongolia) - 1279-1368 AD
  • Ming Dynasty - 1368 - 1644 AD
  • Qing Dynasty - 1636 - 1912 AD
  • The Republic of China - 1912 AD - now (It only ruled mainland China until 1949. It lost in the Chinese Civil War, so now it only rules Taiwan, Penghu, Kingmen, Mazhu, the Taiping Island and the Dongsha Island. The Republic of China after 1949 is actually Taiwan.)
  • The People's Republic of China - 1949 AD - now

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