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Rudy Giuliani communicating with a microphone

Communication is when information is passed from a sender to a recipient using a medium. There are different media that can be used:

Communication can be good spoken (a word) or non-spoken (a smile). Communication has many ways, and happens all the time. Not only humans communicate, most other animals do too. Some communication is done without thinking, such as by changing in posture.

Another form of communication tries to change somebody's mind. In an extreme case it can be propaganda.

This is similar to communication by talking

How communication works

Communication works by exchanging information or messages. In very basic terms

  1. The sender makes a message, from an idea. This is usually called encoding
  2. The sender transmits the message through the medium.
  3. The recipient receives the message and decodes it.

Besides the content of the message, there are other things that are important. These are not part of the message itself, but rather of its context

  • Who is communicating, and what status does the communicator have.
  • Communication messages usually do not come alone, but are accompanied by other messages. These are also interpreted.

For a message exchange to be successful, the sender and the recipient must have agreed on a vocabulary. The word hedge can mean completely different things based on the context. In biology a hedge is a row of shrubs or trees that make a barrier or form a border. In finance, a hedge is an investment made to reduce the risk of another investment. In linguistics a hedge is a word or set of words that make other words less important. Without any information it is therefore very difficult to know which hedge is really meant by the speaker.

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