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# Iceland

Republic of Iceland
Lýðveldið Ísland
Anthem: Lofsöngur
Hymn
File:Lofsöngur.ogg
Location of  Iceland  (dark green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Reykjavík
64°08′N 21°56′W﻿ / ﻿64.133°N 21.933°W
National language Icelandic
Ethnic groups (2013[1])
Demonym Icelander
Icelandic
Government Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic
-  President Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson
-  Prime Minister Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson
-  Speaker of the Althing Einar Kristinn Guðfinnsson
Legislature Althing
Establishment
-  Settlement 9th century
-  Commonwealth 930–1262
-  Union with Norway 1262–1814
-  Danish monarchy 1380–1944
-  Constitution 5 January 1874
-  Kingdom of Iceland 1 December 1918
-  Republic 17 June 1944
Area
-  Total 103,001 km2 (108th)
39,770 sq mi
-  Water (%) 2.7
Population
-  12 February 2013 estimate 321,857[a] (175th)
-  Density 3.1/km2 (232nd)
7.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
-  Total $12.831 billion[2] - Per capita$39,223[2]
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
-  Total $13.654 billion[2] - Per capita$41,739[2]
Gini (2010)25.0[b]
low · 1st
HDI (2013) 0.906[3]
very high · 13th
Currency Icelandic króna (ISK)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
-  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC)
Drives on the right
Calling code +354
Internet TLD .is
a. ^  "Statistics Iceland:Key figures". Statistics Iceland. 1 October 2002. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
b. ^  "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing – Distribution of family income – Gini index". United States government. Retrieved 14 September 2008.

Iceland (Icelandic: Ísland) is an island country in the North Atlantic, between Greenland and Norway, formerly a possession of Denmark. It is culturally considered to be part of Europe. Iceland is 300 kilometres east of Greenland and 1000 kilometres west of Norway. There are about 320,000 people who live in Iceland. Iceland has an area of 103,000 km².

## History

The first people who lived on Iceland are thought to have been Irish monks. They came to Iceland around the year 800.

In the 9th century, Norsemen went to live in Iceland. The first Norseman who lived in Iceland was Flóki Vilgerðarson. He was also the one who gave Iceland its name. Ingólfur Arnarson, a chieftain from Norway went to live in South West Iceland. He founded the city of Reykjavík.

In 930, the Icelandic rulers wrote a constitution. They created the Althing, a kind of parliament in a place called Þingvellir. Therefore, Iceland is the oldest existing republic.

In 985, Erik the Red was sent away from the island because he had killed someone. He sailed to the west and discovered Greenland. Eric's son Leif Ericson discovered America in the year 1000. He called it Vinland. The voyages of Eric, Leif and others were written down in the sagas (long stories).

In 1262, Iceland became part of Norway. This lasted for 400 years. In 1662, it became part of Denmark. In the 19th century, many Icelanders wanted to be independent from Denmark. In 1918, Iceland got many powers of its own, but the king of Denmark was still king of Iceland.

When Germany took over Denmark on April 9 1940, the Althing decided that Icelanders should rule the country themselves, but they did not declare independence yet. British and later American soldiers occupied Iceland to prevent it from being attacked by the Germans. In 1944, Iceland finally became fully independent.

After World War II, Iceland became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), but not of the European Union. Between 1958 and 1976, there were three debates between Iceland and the United Kingdom about the rights to catch codfish. They were called the Cod Wars.

In 1980, Vigdís Finnbogadóttir was elected president of Iceland. She was the first woman ever to be elected president of a country.

## Economy

Fishing and fish processing is the main economic activity in Iceland.[4] Despite effort to diversify, particularly into the travel industry, seafood exports continue to account for nearly three-quarters of merchandise exports and approximately half of all foreign exchange earnings.

Geothermal Energy produces the vast majority of Electrical Power consumed on Iceland, due chiefly to the island's position atop the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and exhibits plentiful hot water reservoirs and geysers. This has the effect of drastically reducing the price of electricity in Iceland, and has attracted several energy-intensive industries.

Aluminum Smelting (The reduction of Aluminum ores to Aluminum metal) is the largest energy-intensive manufacturing sector in Iceland, and the country produced over 800,000 Metric Tonnes per Year in 2013,[5] making it the 10th largest producer of Aluminum metal worldwide.

## Geography

Iceland is very geologically active and combined with large amounts of rain and snow caused by the warm waters of the gulf stream current which flow toward it, many interesting and unusual geographic features have developed which make it different from any other island so close to the Arctic Circle.

Some of these features are Iceland's numerous mountains, volcanoes, hot springs, rivers, small lakes, waterfalls, glaciers, and geysers. The word geyser is, in fact, derived from Geysir, the name of a particularly famous geyser on the southern side of the island. Glaciers cover approximately 11% of the island and the largest, Vatnajökull, is up to 1 km thick and, by far, the largest glacier in Europe.

Iceland, though considered to be a European country, sits partly in North America since it straddles the Mid-Atlantic Ridge which marks the boundary between the Eurasian and North American tectonic plates. The ridge runs directly through the populated Reykjavik and Thingvellir historic areas, and the tectonic activity of these plates separating is the source of the abundant geothermal energy in the region.

## Towns and cities

Reykjavík is the capital city of Iceland. Reykjavík is also the most important port in Iceland. Other important towns in Iceland are Akureyri, Kópavogur, Hafnarfjörður, Keflavík, and Vestmannaeyjar.

## People

The people in Iceland are mostly of Scandinavian origin. The language they speak is Icelandic. The language has not changed much in 1,000 years, so Icelanders are still able to read the sagas about the Vikings without many problems. Most people in Iceland are Christian. Most of them are Lutheran.

Icelandic people are considered to be the most happiest people on Earth.[6] Iceland has the highest birth rate in Europe, highest divorce rate and the highest percentage of women working outside their home.[6]

### Names

There are no real surnames on Iceland. Children get the first name of their father (sometimes mother) with -s+son if it's a boy, and -s+dóttir if it's a girl. For example, a man named Jón Stefánsson has a son named Fjalar. Fjalar's last name will not be Stefánsson like his father's, it will become Fjalar Jónsson. The same goes for women. Jón Stefánsson's daughter Kata would not have the last name Stefánsson, she would have the name Jónsdóttir. In most countries people use to call other people by their surname, but in Iceland people call other people by their first name. So when people talk about Halldór Ásgrímsson they do not call him Ásgrímsson, but Halldór.

## References

1. "Population by country of citizenship, sex and age 1 January 1998-2013". Reykjavík, Iceland: Statistics Iceland. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
2. "Iceland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
3. "Human Development Report 2013". United Nations. 2013. Retrieved 14 March 2013.
4. "Iceland economy". Retrieved December 16, 2013.
5. Hjalti Jóhannesson. "Aluminium overtakes fish in Iceland". Nordregio website. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
6. "No wonder Iceland has the happiest people on earth". The Guardian.com. Retrieved September 24, 2013.