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Darawiish (Dhulbahante state)




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Darwiish State
Sayyidate
Isaaq colonial state

1896–1921

Flag of Darwiish

Flag

Motto
Ismail Mire poems
Gobanimada Dhulbahante (Dhulbahante independence)
Anthem
Ismail Mire poems
Territory of Darwiish
Capital Dareema Caddo (first)
Baran, Sool (expeditions)
Taleh (last)
Language(s) Somali
Government Autocracy
Sayyid
 - 1896-1920 Sayyid Hassan
Khusuusi
 - 1900-1920 Ismail Mire
Legislature Khusuusi
History
 - Assembly in Dareema Caddo (Caynabo) 1896
 - Isaaq cavalry launched April 1899
 - Sayid declares a Dhulbahante State May 1899
 - James Sadler describes the Darwiish as a Isaaq nation[1] May 1899
 - isaaq tribes punished May 1901
 - Air raids on Taleh 1921
Warning: Value not specified for "continent"

The Darawiish (also spelled Daraawiish State) was a Dhulbahante anti-colonial state[1] geographically correlating with Khatumo and the successor state to the Dhulbahante garaadship. It was a Dhulbahante (Si'iid Harti) state which existed from 1896 to 1921.[2] It was ruled by a government called Xarunta. The supreme commander was Ismail Mire. The head of state was the Sayyid.[3] The Darwiishes began growing in the first Darwiish capital in Dareema Caddo, near Buuhoodle. It ended in the final Darwiish capital in Taleh.[4]

Terminology

Darwiish may come from Al Darawish which means "simple people" in Arabic. It may also come from dar al wiish which is Arabic and Balochi for land of happy people. The Darwiish sometimes referred to their opponents as kabacad or gumeysiraac.[5]

History

On Mar 3, 1905 the "Mad Mullah" declared himself Sayyid of Nogal (other name of the Nugaal valley) in the Khatumo region. His full name was sultan" Mahamad Abdullah Hasan. The territory coincided approximately with the actual Nugaal area in modern Khatumo State. It was ruled like a kind of sultanate in behalf of the Mahdi.

His rule was terminated by Italy in 1911. The Italian victory started on September 3, 1908 when Italian official Di Giorgio conquered Afgoi and the sultan of Ghelédi with his 5000 men surrendered to the Italians (who won an important battle at Araré and Eyl).

During 1910-1914, Sayyid's capital moved from Illig to Taleex in the heart of Nugaal where he built three garrison forts of massive stone work and a number of houses. He built a "luxurious" palace for himself and kept new guards drawn from outcast clans. By 1913, he had dominated the entire hinterland surrounding Khatumo by building forts at Jidali and Ugaadhyahan lands, at Werder in Ali Gheri lands, and Beledweyne in southern Somalia.

After the collapse of Muhammad Abdullah Hassan’s resistance movement,[6] rebellion and revolt occurred with disputes between different tribes in Northern Somalia.

The Italian government of Somalia again worked together with the old tribesmen in order to try and keep peace between the several tribes, while maintaining close control over the military.[7]

Sayyid Mohammed Abdullah Hassan (nicknamed the "Mad Mullah" by the British) escaped from the Khatumo region in 1920 to Imey Ethiopia, where he later died in 1921.

Self-made state

In Downing Street, it was described as a state. Its influence was over the dhulbahante tribe.[8] Unlike the Abyssinians whose preservation in 1906 were supported by Italy, France and Britain, Darawiish became independent by themselves.[9]

Maaraweyn

Maaraweyn was the army of the Darawiish.

Xarunta

The xarunta had ministers called qusuusi. It also had commanders called muqaddim. The most important people in Xarunta were Xayd Aaden Gallaydh, Ismail Mire, the Sayyid, Xirsi Cartan Boos, Xasan Gaagguf, Xirsiwaal Cashuur, Muuse Taagane, Aw Abbas Xuseen, Afqarshe Xassan Ismail, Macalin Cagadhiig, Shire Cumbaal, Faarax Kaligiimaadhle, Faarax Qarshi, and the four Seed Magan brothers (i.e. Obsiiye, Oogle, Jaamac and Aaden).[10]

Gallery

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 THE SCRAMBLE IN THE HORN OF AFRICA Mohamed Osman Omar, "In his last letter the Mullah pretends to speak in the name of the Dervishes, their Amir (himself), and the Isaaq. This letter shows his object is to establish himself as the Ruler of the Isaaq, and it has a Mahdist look.", 2001
  2. A History of Our Own Times ...: From the diamond jubilee, 1897, to the accession of King Edward VII, p 106
  3. Issa-Salwe, Abdisalam M. "The Failure of the Daraawiish State: The clash between Somali clanship and state system." Paper Presented at the 5th International Congress of Somali Studies December. 1993.
  4. Xasuus qor: timelines of Somali history, 1400-2000 - Page 25
  5. Samatar, Said S. "Gabay-Ḥayir: A Somali Mock Heroic Song." Research in African Literatures (1980): 449-478.
  6. Dervish Resistance movement
  7. Hess, Robert L. Italian Colonialism, p 146
  8. https://api.parliament.uk/historic-hansard/commons/1914/feb/24/class-v-colonial-services-somaliland#column_1644 "He quickly obtained through his marriage connections great influence over the Dolbahanta tribe, and he established a native power in the interior. He settled disputes among the tribes, and kept them from raiding each other, thus maintaining law and order. What happened was that this native chief, a man of genius, a military leader of ability, a man who not only had military gifts but gifts of statesmanship, tried to exercise something of the great power of religion, which is always powerful everywhere, in setting up a strong and stable native State in the interior"
  9. 6 Jul 1906 Tripartite Agreement on Abyssinia Facing Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia's deteriorating health, representatives of Britain, France, and Italy met to discuss the future of Ethiopia should his succession prove unstable. On 6 July 1906 the three powers agreed to spheres of influence but to preserve the integrity of Ethiopia and respect the status quo of its frontiers. The powers presented the treaty to Menelik on 16 October for his consideration, then signed it on 13 December
  10. diiwaanka gabayadii sayidka

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