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# Analog-to-digital converter

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An **analog-to-digital converter** (abbreviated **ADC**, **A/D** or **A to D**) is an electronic integrated circuit that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital number. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (**DAC**).

Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number. The size of the number grows with an increase in the input voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs.

## References

- Allen, Phillip E.; Holberg, Douglas R.,
*CMOS Analog Circuit Design*,

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- Kester, Walt, ed. (2005),
*The Data Conversion Handbook*, Elsevier: Newnes,

, http://www.analog.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/39-06/data_conversion_handbook.html

- Johns, David; Martin, Ken,
*Analog Integrated Circuit Design*,

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- Knoll, Glenn F. (1989),
*Radiation Detection and Measurement*(2nd ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 665–666 - Liu, Mingliang,
*Demystifying Switched-Capacitor Circuits*,

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- Nicholson, P. W. (1974),
*Nuclear Electronics*, New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 315–316 - Norsworthy, Steven R.; Schreier, Richard; Temes, Gabor C. (1997),
*Delta-Sigma Data Converters*, IEEE Press,

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- Razavi, Behzad (1995),
*Principles of Data Conversion System Design*, New York, NY: IEEE Press,

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- Staller, Len (February 24, 2005), "Understanding analog to digital converter specifications",
*Embedded Systems Design*, http://www.embedded.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=60403334 - Walden, R. H. (1999), "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis",
*IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications***17**(4): 539–550,

, , http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=761034

## More websites

The English Wikibooks has more information on: |

- Counting Type ADC A simple tutorial showing how to build your first ADC.
- An Introduction to Delta Sigma Converters A very nice overview of Delta-Sigma converter theory.
- Digital Dynamic Analysis of A/D Conversion Systems through Evaluation Software based on FFT/DFT Analysis RF Expo East, 1987
- Which ADC Architecture Is Right for Your Application? article by Walt Kester
- AN71 - The Care and Feeding of High Performance ADCs Real world circuit and layout advice
- ADC and DAC Glossary Defines commonly used technical terms.
- Signal processing and system aspects of time-interleaved ADCs.
- Introduction to ADC in AVR - Analog to digital conversion with Atmel microcontrollers