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Cardinal (Catholicism)

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Cardinal is a clerical office in the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinals are counselors of the pope.[1]

Pope Innocent IV granted the use of the red hat to the cardinals in 1245. The red had was a symbol of the cardinal's readiness to shed their blood in the cause of the church.[2]

College of Cardinals

The collective name for cardinals is college of cardinals. The Pope is elected by the "college of cardinals".[1]

When there is no pope, the cardinals directs the day-to-day affairs of the Church.[1]


The Coat of Arms of a cardinal who is not a bishop
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Cardinal," Catholic Encyclopedia (2009); retrieved 2011-11-23.
  2. "Innocent IV", Encyclopedia Britannica (1910), Vol. 14, p. 580.

Other websites

  "Cardinal (1)". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company.