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Clockwise from top-left: a haptophyte, some diatoms, an oomycete, a cryptomonad, and Macrocystis, a phaeophyte
Scientific classification

Cavalier-Smith 1998

Chromalveolata is a eukaryote supergroup first proposed by Thomas Cavalier-Smith as a refinement of his kingdom Chromista, which was first proposed in 1981.

The origin of the Chromalveolata was thought to be a secondary endosymbiosis between a bikont (cell with two flagella) and a red alga.[1] This union led to plastids containing chlorophyll c. In Cavalier-Smith's classification, the Chromalveolata was one of the six major groups within the eukaryotes.[2]

The classification has been challenged.[3][4]


  1. Keeling P.J. (2009). "Chromalveolates and the evolution of plastids by secondary endosymbiosis". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56: 1–8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00371.x . PMID 19335769 . 
  2. Adl, Sina M. & al (2005), "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists", Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 52: 399, doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x , 
  3. Burki, Fabien; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran & Pawlowski, Jan (2008), "Phylogenomics reveals a new 'megagroup' including most photosynthetic eukaryotes", Biology Letters 4: 366–369, doi:10.1098/rsbl.2008.0224  
  4. Kim, E; Graham, LE (Jul 2008). "EEF2 analysis challenges the monophyly of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata." (Free full text). PLoS ONE 3 (7): e2621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002621 . PMC 2440802 . PMID 18612431 .