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An ionic bond is the bonding between a non-metal and a metal, that occurs when charged atoms (ions) attract after one loses one or more of its electrons, and gives it to the other molecule, for example sodium and chlorine. This makes the bond stronger and harder to break.
In other words, an ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions. The positive ion is called cation, and the negative ion is the anion. It is like the north and south poles of a magnet.
Features of ionic bonds
- Three dimensional structure called an ionic lattice.
- Soluble in water.
- High melting point and boiling point because a large amount of energy is required to break the electrostatic forces holding the lattice together.
- They are compounds formed from metals and non-metals.
- In a solid state they do not conduct electricity. However, in a liquid state or when dissolved in water, they will conduct electricity well because the ions are free to move.
- They contrast to the characteristics of a covalent bond.
- Sometimes if they do not have a spare electron to create a complete shell one will act as two and spin in a figure of eight around both atoms.
- Curtis, Cliff (2011). Edexcel IGCSE Chemistry Revision Guide. Pearson Education. p. 21. .