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Karl Pearson
Karl Pearson  

Karl Pearson (né Carl Pearson)  
Born  Islington, London, England  27 March 1857
Died  27 April 1936 Coldharbour, Surrey, England  (aged 79)
Residence  England 
Nationality  British 
Fields  Lawyer, eugenicist, mathematician and statistician (mainly the latter) 
Institutions  University College London King's College, Cambridge 
Alma mater  University of Cambridge University of Heidelberg 
Known for  Pearson distribution Pearson's r Pearson's chisquared test Phi coefficient 
Influences  Francis Galton 
Notable awards  Darwin Medal (1898) 
Karl Pearson FRS (27 March 1857 – 27 April 1936) was an influential English mathematician.^{[1]}^{[2]} He helped establish the discipline of mathematical statistics.^{[3]} "Carl Pearson" became "Karl Pearson" by accident when he enrolled at the University of Heidelberg in 1879. They changed the spelling. He used both versions of his name until 1884 when he finally adopted Karl.^{[4]} Eventually he became known as "KP".
In 1911 he founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London. He was a proponent of eugenics, and a protégé and biographer of Sir Francis Galton.
A conference was held in London on 23 March 2007, to celebrate the 150th anniversary of his birth.^{[3]}
Galton
Pearson met Charles Darwin's cousin Francis Galton, who was interested in heredity and eugenics. Pearson became Galton's protégé, at times close to hero worship.
After Galton's death in 1911, Pearson started on a massive threevolume biography of Galton. The biography was done "to satisfy myself and without regard to... the needs of publishers or to the tastes of the reading public". It celebrated Galton's life, work, and talent. He predicted (wrongly) that Galton, rather than Charles Darwin, would be remembered as the most prodigious grandson of Erasmus Darwin.
When Galton died, he left much of his estate to University College London for a Chair in Eugenics. Pearson was the first holder of this chair,^{[5]} in accordance with Galton's wishes.^{[6]} He formed the Department of Applied Statistics, which included the Biometric and Galton laboratories. He stayed with the department until his retirement in 1933, and continued to work until his death in 1936.
Statistics
Pearson's ideas helped build the statistical methods in common use today.^{[7]}^{[8]}^{[9]}^{[10]}^{[11]}
Books
 The grammar of science. 1892; 2nd ed 1900. A. & C. Black, London. Dover Publications 2004 edition ISBN 0486495817
 The life, letters and labours of Francis Galton: three volumes: 1914, 1924, 1930, Cambridge University Press, available in full at Galton website
References
 ↑ ^ Yule G.U. & Filon L.N.G. 1936. Karl Pearson. 18571936. Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 2 (5): 72. [1]
 ↑ "Library and Archive catalogue". Sackler Digital Archive. Royal Society. http://www2.royalsociety.org/DServe/dserve.exe?dsqIni=Dserve.ini&dsqApp=Archive&dsqCmd=Show.tcl&dsqDb=Persons&dsqPos=0&dsqSearch=%28%28text%29%3D%27%20%20Pearson%3A%20Karl%20%281857%20%201936%29%20%20%27%29). Retrieved 20110701.
 ↑ ^{3.0} ^{3.1} "Karl Pearson sesquicentenary conference". Royal Statistical Society. 20070303. http://www.economics.soton.ac.uk/staff/aldrich/KP150.htm. Retrieved 20080725.
 ↑ Porter, Theodore M. 2004. Karl Pearson: the scientific life in a statistical age. Princeton University Press. pg.78
 ↑ The Galton Chair of Eugenics, later the Galton Chair of Genetics
 ↑ Pearson, Roger 1991. Race, intelligence and bias in Academe ScottTownsend Publishers.
 ↑ Stigler, S.M. (1989). "Francis Galton's account of the invention of correlation". Statistical Science 4 (2): 73–79. .
 ↑ Pearson, K. (1900). "On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling". Philosophical Magazine Series 5 50 (302): 157–175. .
 ↑ Neyman, J.; Pearson, E.S. (1928). "On the use and interpretation of certain test criteria for purposes of statistical inference". Biometrika 20: 175–240.
 ↑ Pearson, K. (1901). "On lines and planes of closest fit to systems of points in space". Philosophical Magazine Series 6 2 (11): 559–572. .
 ↑ Jolliffe I.T. 2002. Principal component analysis. 2nd ed, New York: SpringerVerlag.
Other sources
 Karl Pearson page
 A list of the papers and correspondence of Karl Pearson (1857–1936) held in the Manuscripts Room, University College London Library. Publications Office, University College London, 1983.
 Entry for Karl Pearson in the Sackler Digital Archive of the Royal Society
