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Laboratory techniques

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Laboratory techniques are the techniques of handling the various pieces of apparatus.

Basic techniques

Handling of chemicals

Ways to dissolve a solid in a liquid or to mix two liquids in a test tube:

  • Shake the test tube gently
  • Stir with a glass rod
  • Tap the bottom of the test tube with your finger
  • Pour the contents to and fro between two test tubes
  • Stopper the test tube and shake

Heating techniques

  • Hold the material over a naked flame
  • Put the material in a water bath
  • Use a type of hairdryer called a "heat gun" to blow hot air at the material.

Collecting gases

  • Upward and downward delivery
  • Over water
  • Gas syringe

Drying substances

  • Leave the mixture at room temperature to evaporate on its own.
  • Put the substance in an "oven" which heats it gently and removes water vapour.

Smelling gases

  • Never smell a gas directly.
  • Waft a gas towards yourself if it is reasonably safe to smell it.
  • Never smell a gas that is toxic or otherwise dangerous.

Testing gases