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# Numerical linear algebra

In the field of numerical analysis, numerical linear algebra is an area to study methods to solve problems in linear algebra by numerical computation[1][2][3]. The following problems will be considered in this area:

1. Numerically solving a system of linear equations[4].
2. Numerically solving an eigenvalue problem for a given matrix[5].
3. Computing approximate values of a matrix-valued function[6].

Numerical errors can occur in any kind of numerical computation including the area of numerical linear algebra. Errors in numerical linear algebra are considered in another area called "validated numerics"[7].

## Latest Studies

Methods for numerical linear algebra has been created by numerical analysts from many generations[1][2][3]. But today, some of them have been rejected due to their computation speed or accuracy[1][2][3]. Currently, the following methods are widely investigated:

• QZ method[8]
• dqds method (differential quotient difference with shift)[9]
• oqds method (orthogonal quotient difference with shift)[10][11][12]
• MRRR method (multiple relatively robust representations)[13]
• MRTR method[14]
• Sakurai-Sugiura method[15]
• CIRR method (Rayleigh-Ritz type method with contour integral)[16]

### Krylov Subspace Methods

In the field of numerical linear algebra, numerical methods based on the theory of Krylov subspaces are known as Krylov subspaces methods. They are considered to be one of the most successful studies in numerical linear algebra[17][18]. The next list is the examples of them:

• MINRES (minimal residual) method[19]
• CR (conjugate residual) method[20]
• QMR type methods
• QMR (quasi minimal residual) method[21][22]
• QMR-SYM method[23][24]
• TFQMR (transpose free quasi minimal residual) method[25]

The conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of the best linear equation solving method. It was originally limited to specific linear systems[26]. In order to overcome this difficulty, many kinds of CG variants have benn created:

• CGS (conjugate gradient squared method)[27]
• PCG (preconditioned conjugate gradient method)
• ICCG (incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient method)
• COCG (conjugate orthogonal conjugate gradient method)[29]
• GPBiCG[30]
• Stabilized methods
• BiCGSTAB (biconjugate gradient stabilized method)[31]
• BiCGSTAB2[32]
• QMRCGSTAB[33]
• GBi-CGSTAB[34]
• Block versions (dividing a given matrix into block matrices is a frequently used technique in numerical linear algebra[1][2][3])

### Validated Numerics for Numerical Linear Algebra

While high accuracy and high speed methods in above have been cretaed, some experts have studied how to evaluate numerical errors in numerical linear algebra[7]. The following are their results:

• Validating numerical solutions of a given system of linear equations[41][42]
• Validated numerics for ill-conditioned problems[43][44][45] (Ill-conditioned problems are problems which are hard to compute accurately[1][2][3])
• Pre-conditioning[46][47][48] (Pre-conditioning is a procedure to allow the given system of linear equations to be easily solved[1][2][3])
• Validating numerically obtained eigenvalues[49][50][51]
• Validating numerical solutions of inverse eigenvalue problems[52][53] (In inverse eigenvalue problems, you will compute and identify an unknown matrix by a given eigenvalue)
• Rigorously computing determinants[54]
• Validating numerical solutions of matrix equations[55][56][57][58][59][60][61]
• Computing matrix functions rigorously (Approximate computation has been studied by N. J. Higham and others[62][63][64][65])
• Matrix exponential[66]
• Matrix logarithm[67]
• Matrix root[68]

### Software

Today, there are many tools for numerical linear algebra. One of the most famous one is MATLAB (matrix laboratory)[69][70][71]. This was made by MathWorks.

## References

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4. Saad, Yousef (2003). Iterative methods for sparse linear systems (2nd ed.). SIAM.
5. David S. Watkins (2008), The Matrix Eigenvalue Problem: GR and Krylov Subspace Methods, SIAM.
6. Higham, N. J. (2008). Functions of matrices: theory and computation. SIAM.
7. Rump, S. M. (2010). Verification methods: Rigorous results using floating-point arithmetic. Acta Numerica, 19, 287-449.
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12. Fast Computation Method of Column Space by using the DQDS Method and the OQDS Method In Proceedings of 2018 International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Processing Techniques and Applications, 333-339, 2018/07, Sho Araki, Hiroki Tanaka, Masami Takata, Kinji Kimura, Yoshimasa Nakamura.
13. Dhillon, I. S., Parlett, B. N., & Vömel, C. (2006). The design and implementation of the MRRR algorithm. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software (TOMS), 32(4), 533-560.
14. Abe, K., Zhang, S. L., & Mitsui, T. (1997). MRTR method: An iterative method based on the three-term recurrence formula of CG-type for nonsymmetric matrix. JSIAM, 7, 37-50.
15. Sakurai, T., & Sugiura, H. (2003). A projection method for generalized eigenvalue problems using numerical integration. en:Journal of computational and applied mathematics, 159(1), 119-128.
16. Sakurai, T., & Tadano, H. (2007). CIRR: a Rayleigh-Ritz type method with contour integral for generalized eigenvalue problems. Hokkaido mathematical journal, 36(4), 745-757.
17. David S. Watkins (2008), The Matrix Eigenvalue Problem: GR and Krylov Subspace Methods, SIAM.
18. Liesen, J., & Strakos, Z. (2012). Krylov subspace methods: principles and analysis. OUP Oxford.
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34. Tanio, M., & Sugihara, M. (2010). GBi-CGSTAB (s, L): IDR (s) with higher-order stabilization polynomials. Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, 235(3), 765-784.
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39. Tadano, H. (2019). Development of the Block BiCGGR2 method for linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Japan Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, 1-15.
40. Tadano, H., & Kuramoto, R. (2019). Accuracy improvement of the Block BiCGSTAB method for linear systems with multiple right-hand sides by group-wise updating technique. Journal of Advanced Simulation in Science and Engineering, 6(1), 100-117.
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55. Shinya Miyajima, Verified computation for the Hermitian positive definite solution of the conjugate discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 350, Pages 80-86, April 2019.
56. Shinya Miyajima, Fast verified computation for the minimal nonnegative solution of the nonsymmetric algebraic Riccati equation, Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 37, Issue 4, Pages 4599-4610, September 2018.
57. Shinya Miyajima, Fast verified computation for the solution of the T-congruence Sylvester equation, Japan Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 541-551, July 2018.
58. Shinya Miyajima, Fast verified computation for the solvent of the quadratic matrix equation, The Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra, Volume 34, Pages 137-151, March 2018
59. Shinya Miyajima, Fast verified computation for solutions of algebraic Riccati equations arising in transport theory, Numerical Linear Algebra with Applications, Volume 24, Issue 5, Pages 1-12, October 2017.
60. Shinya Miyajima, Fast verified computation for stabilizing solutions of discrete-time algebraic Riccati equations, Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Volume 319, Pages 352-364, August 2017.
61. Shinya Miyajima, Fast verified computation for solutions of continuous-time algebraic Riccati equations, Japan Journal of Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Volume 32, Issue 2, Pages 529-544, July 2015.
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66. Miyajima, S. (2019). Verified computation of the matrix exponential. Advances in Computational Mathematics, 45(1), 137-152.
67. Miyajima, S. (2019). Verified computation for the matrix principal logarithm. Linear Algebra and its Applications, 569, 38-61.
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