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Sir Richard Arkwright (3 January 1733 – 3 August 1792) was an Englishman who invented the spinning frame – later renamed the water frame following the transition to water power. A self-made man, he was a leading entrepreneur of the Industrial Revolution in England. Arkwright's achievement was to combine power, machinery, semi-skilled labour, and a new raw material (cotton) to create, more than a century before Henry Ford, mass production. His mechanical abilities and, above all, his genius for organisation made him more than anyone else, the creator of the modern factory system.