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The root in language is either a base word, or a part of a word to which affixes are added. Or, it is the part left after affixes have been taken away. Technically, it is the smallest unit which carries meaning: it cannot be reduced into smaller units. It is the same as a free-standing morpheme.
Examples: in each case in bold
- science. This one is interesting because it is so ancient. It is a descendent of the Indo-European root scei, meaning to cut or split. It comes to us via the Latin language.
- McArthur, Tom 1992. The Oxford companion to the English language. Oxford Unniversity Press, 876.