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Social class

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Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures.

Not all societies have social classes. Scientist have found no proof for hierarchical power structures during Stone Age.[1]

Determinants of class

In societies where classes exist, one's class is determined largely by:

In the United Kingdom there are upper class, middle class, working class and underclass people.

Other pages

Further reading

  • Marx, Karl & Engels, Frederick; The Communist Manifesto, (1848). (The key statement of class conflict as the driver of historical change).
  • Savage, Mike; Class Analysis and Social Transformation (London: Open University Press, 2000).
  • Sennett, Richard & Cobb, Jonathan; The Hidden Injuries of Class, (Vintage, 1972) (classic study of the subjective experience of class).
  • Wlkowitz, Daniel J.; Working with Class: Social Workers and the Politics of Middle-Class Identity (University of North Carolina Press, 1999).
  • "Class, Status and Party", Max Weber, in e.g. Gerth, Hans and C. Wright Mills, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, (Oxford University Press, 1958). (Weber's key statement of the multiple nature of stratification).
  • Wright, Erik Olin; Class Counts: Comparative Studies in Class Analysis (Cambridge University Press, 1997)

Other websites


  1. Gowdy, John (2006) "Hunter-gatherers and the mythology of the market," in Richard B. Lee and Richard H. Daly (eds.), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers, pp.391-394. New York: Cambridge University Press