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The thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands in the body. This gland is found in the throat. The thyroid controls how quickly the body burns energy, makes proteins, and how sensitive the body should be to other hormones.
The principal hormones it makes are thyroxine (T4) an triiodothyronine (T3), which is more active. These hormones regulate the growth of many systems in the body. T3 and T4 are synthesised from iodine and tyrosine. The thyroid also makes calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis.
Hyper- and hypofunction (affects about 2% of the population)
- Hypothyroidism (underactivity) - Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.
- Hyperthyroidism (overactivity)
- Thyroid adenoma
- Thyroid cancer
- Lymphomas and metastasis from elsewhere (rare)
- American Thyroid Association (Thyroid Information and professional organization)
- New Management Guidelines for Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer[dead link] from the American Thyroid Association Taskforce.
- Thyroid Disease Manager (free online textbook)
- Thyroid Disease (Nuclear Medicine Information)
- The Thyroid Foundation of America (Education about Thyroid Disease)
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