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Yield (chemistry)

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In chemistry, yield (also called chemical yield or reaction yield) is the amount of product resulting from a chemical reaction.[1] The absolute yield gives the weight in grams, and the molar yield gives the number of moles.

The fractional yield, relative yield, or percentage yield shows how completely a synthetic procedure worked. It is calculated by dividing the amount of product by the theoretical yield (the unit of measurement for both must be the same):

[math]\mbox{fractional yield} = \frac{\mbox{actual yield}}{\mbox{theoretical yield}}[/math]

To get the percentage yield, one must multiply the fractional yield by 100% (e.g., 0.673 × 100% = 67.3%).

The ideal percentage yield of a chemical reaction is 100%, but it cannot be achieved because measurements are never completely accurate. Yields around 100% are "quantitative", yields above 90% are "excellent", yields above 80% are "very good", yields above 70% are "good", yields above 50% are "fair", and yields below 40% are "poor".[1]


  1. 1.0 1.1 Vogel, A.I., Tatchell, A.R., Furnis, B.S., Hannaford, A.J. and P.W.G. Smith. Vogel's Textbook of Practical OrganicHall, 19936-3.