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Alveolar approximant



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Alveolar approximant
ɹ
ð̠˕
IPA number151
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɹ
Unicode (hex)U+0279
X-SAMPAr\ or D_r_o
Kirshenbaumr
Sound

 

The alveolar approximant is a consonant. We use it in some spoken languages. International Phonetic Alphabet represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants as ⟨ɹ⟩. International Phonetic Alphabet represents it as a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees, or in broad transcriptionr⟩; the X-SAMPA symbol of this is ⟨r\⟩.

Many times the symbol is written as ⟨r⟩ instead of ⟨ɹ⟩ because typing ⟨r⟩ is easier.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern սուրճ [suɹtʃʰ] 'coffee'
Chukchi ңирэк [ŋiɹek] 'two'
Dutch Goois door [doəɹ] 'through' Most dialects use an alveolar tap or trill. See Dutch phonology
Leiden dialect rat [ɹat] 'rat'
English American dialects[1] red [ɹ̠ˤʷɛd] 'red' Often retracted and labialized. In non-rhotic dialects, it occurs only before a vowel. May also be a labialized retroflex approximant; corresponds to an alveolar trill or alveolar tap in a few other dialects. For convenience it is often transcribed <r>. See English phonology
Australian
Received Pronunciation
Faroese róður [ɹɔuwʊɹ] 'rudder'
German Westerwald[2] Rebe [ɹeːbə] 'vine shoot' Most other dialects use a voiced uvular fricative or uvular trill. See German phonology
Siegerland[3]
Upper Lusatian
Portuguese Many Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] verde [ˈveɹdʒɪ] 'green' Syllable-final allophone of rhotic consonant and also /l/. See Portuguese phonology
Some countryside Central-Southern Brazilian dialects[source?] temporal [tẽjpoˈɾaɹ] 'rainstorm'
Spanish Some dialects[4] doscientos [do̞ɹˈθje̞nto̞s] 'two hundred' Allophone of /s/ in the syllable coda. See Spanish phonology
Vietnamese rơ [ɹəː] 'to clean' See Vietnamese phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[5] r [ɹd̪ɨ] 'pass' Allophone of /ɾ/ before any consonant.

Notes

References

  • Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997), "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 101 (6): 3741–3753, doi:10.1121/1.418333
     , PMID 9193061
       
  • Browman, L.; Goldstein (1995), "Gestural syllable position in American English", in Bell-Berti, F.; Raphael, L.J., Producing Speech: Contemporary issues for K Harris, New York: AIP, pp. 9–33 
  • Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968), "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture", Linguistics 44: 29–68 
  • Fougeron, C (1999), "Prosodically conditioned articulatory variation: A Review", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 97, pp. 1–73 
  • Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea; Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics 27 (3): 281–306, doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097
      
  • Kohler, Klaus (1995), Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114 
  • Recasens, Daniel (2004), "The effect of syllable position on consonant reduction (evidence fromCatalan consonant clusters)", Journal of Phonetics 32 (3): 435–453, doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.001
      
  • Zawadski, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980), "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/", Phonetica 37 (4): 253–266, doi:10.1159/000259995
     , PMID 7443796