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Bologna is a city in Northern Italy with about 375,000 inhabitants.

Bologna was founded by the Etruscans with the name Felsina (c. 534 BC) and became a Roman colony in 189 BC.

In the 11th century Bologna began to grow again as a free Comune, joining the Lombard League against Frederick Barbarossa in 1164.

After being crushed in the Battle of Zappolino by the Modenese in 1325, Bologna began to decay and asked the protection of the Pope at the beginning of the 14th century.

The University of Bologna, founded in 1088, is the oldest existing university in Europe.