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Citizenship is the relationship between a person and his or her country, usually the same one he or she lives in, supports, and in return gets protection from. A person is usually a citizen of the country where he or she is born, but sometimes a person will apply to change his or her citizenship to become a citizen in another country.

In most countries, citizens have rights sometimes called civil rights such as political participation at a lawful age, and duties, such as keeping the laws.

Some have made a difference between a "citizen", living in a republic (a country with no monarch), and a "subject" who is under the rule of a king or queen, such as Sweden or England.


A citizen is a member of a group membership of Sovereign people that have certain rights, who consent to form and maintain a Government that can protect these rights or take advantage of them. Some Governments can admit and exile people from this citizenship, in order to hold/protect these Rules/Rights.

  • People born in the country may be citizens by 'Jus soli', right of soil. Those having citizen parents may be natural born citizens. Some countries also recognize 'Jus sanguinis', the right of members of the national diaspora to be citizens.
  • Foreigners can also be naturalized as citizens. Naturalization makes them citizens of their new country. Usually they give up their citizenship of their old country but some countries have permanent citizenship; you can't quit such a citizenship.
  • People who consent to belong to more than one Government, with approval of both Government, are dual citizens, as are.
    • People who consent to one Government but move and reside to another Government, with approval of both Governments.
    • People whose parents belong to a different government than the child's natural born location, with approval of both Governments.

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