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Climate change means the climate of Earth changing. Climate change is now a big problem. Climate change this century and last century is sometimes called global warming, because the surface of the Earth is getting hotter, because of humans. But thousands and millions of years ago sometimes it was very cold, like ice ages and snowball Earth.
It describes changes in the state of the atmosphere over time scales ranging from decades to millions of years. These changes can be caused by processes inside the Earth, forces from outside (like more or less sunshine) or, more recently, human activities.
Climate change is any significant long-term change in the weather of a region (or the whole Earth) over a significant period of time. Climate change is about abnormal variations to the climate, and the effects of these variations on other parts of the Earth. Examples include the melting of ice caps at the South Pole and North Pole. These changes may take tens, hundreds or perhaps millions of years.
In recent use, especially in environmental policy, climate change usually refers to changes in modern climate (see global warming).
Some people have suggested trying to keep Earth’s temperature increase below 2 °C (3.6 °F). On February 7, 2018, The Washington Post reported on a study by scientists in Germany. The study said that if the world built all of the coal plants that were currently planned, carbon dioxide levels would rise so much that the world would not be able to keep the temperature increase below this limit.
History of climate change studies
Joseph Fourier in 1824, Claude Poulliet in 1827 and 1838, Eunace Foote (1819–1888) in 1856, Irish physicist John Tyndall (1820–1893) in 1863 onwards, Svante Arrhenius in 1896, and Guy Stewart Callendar (1898–1964) are credited with discovering the importance of CO2 in climate change. Foote's work was not appreciated, and not widely known. Tyndall proved there were other greenhouse gases as well. Nils Gustaf Ekholm in 1901 invented the term.
- Earth Hour
- Natural disaster
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
- Rosen, Julia; Parshina-Kottas, Yuliya. "A Climate Change Guide for Kids". The New York Times. . https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/04/18/climate/climate-change-future-kids.html.
- "If the world builds every coal plant that’s planned". February 7, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/energy-environment/wp/2018/02/07/if-the-world-builds-all-its-planned-coal-plants-climate-change-goals-are-doomed-scientists-say/.
- Tyndall J. 1863. Heat as a mode of motion. London & New York.
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- Ekholm N (1901). "On the variations of the climate of the geological and historical past and their causes". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 27 (117): 1–62. .
- Edwards, Paul Geoffrey; Miller, Clark A. (2001). Changing the atmosphere: expert knowledge and environmental governance. Cambridge MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-63219-5
- McKibben, Bill (2011). The global warming reader. New York, N.Y.: OR Books. ISBN 978-1-935928-36-2
- Ruddiman W.F. (2003). "The anthropogenic greenhouse era began thousands of years ago". Climate Change 61 (3): 261–293. 
- Ruddiman, William F. (2005). Plows, plagues, and petroleum: how humans took control of climate. Princeton N.J: Princeton University Press. https://archive.org/details/plowsplaguespetr00will. ISBN 0-691-13398-0
- Schelling, Thomas C. 2002. "Greenhouse Effect". Concise Encyclopedia of Economics (1st). Ed. David R. Henderson (ed.). Library of Economics and Liberty. OCLC 317650570, 50016270 and 163149563