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Methane




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Methane
Methane-2D-dimensions.svg
Methane.Structural formula.V1.svg
Methane-3D-space-filling.svg
Other names
  • Marsh gas
  • Natural gas
  • Carbon tetrahydride
  • Hydrogen carbide
Identifiers
CAS number 74-82-8
PubChem 297
EC number 200-812-7
KEGG C01438
MeSH Methane
ChEBI CHEBI:16183
RTECS number PA1490000
SMILES C
Beilstein Reference 1718732
Gmelin Reference 59
3DMet B01453
Properties
Molecular formula CH4
Molar mass 16.04 g mol-1
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor Odorless
Density
  • 0.657 g·L−1 (gas, 25 °C, 1 atm)
  • 0.717 g·L−1 (gas, 0 °C, 1 atm)
  • 422.62 g·L−1 (liquid, −162 °C)[2]
Melting point

-182 °C, 90.7 K, -296 °F

Boiling point

-162 °C, 111.65 K, -259 °F

Solubility in water 22.7 mg·L−1
Solubility Soluble in ethanol, diethyl ether, benzene, toluene, methanol, acetone and insoluble in water
log P 1.09
kH 14 nmol·Pa−1·kg−1
−12.2×10−6 cm3·mol−1
Structure
Td
Molecular shape Tetrahedron
Dipole moment 0 D
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−74.87 kJ·mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−891.1 to −890.3 kJ·mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
186.25 J·(K·mol)−1
Specific heat capacity, C 35.69 J·(K·mol)−1
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
2
0
 
Explosive limits 4.4–17%
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Methane is an organic compound with the chemical formula CH4. It is an alkane with one carbon atom. It is often found as the main part of natural gas. Methane is a greenhouse gas[4][5] 23 times more effective than carbon dioxide. It is also less stable and slowly oxidates by oxygen to carbon dioxide and water.

Uses

Methane is used in gas taps in places such as kitchens, chemistry classrooms, laboratories, etc. as it burns very easily because of its simple molecular structure.

Molecular structure

Methane's molecular structure is very simple. It is a single carbon atom surrounded by four hydrogen atoms.

Production

Methane can be made by many chemical ways, but usually is found in natural gas and is obtained by fractional distillation, after it has become liquid.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Front Matter". Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. pp. 3–4. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001 . ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4 . "Methane is a retained name (see P-12.3) that is preferred to the systematic name ‘carbane’, a name never recommended to replace methane, but used to derive the names ‘carbene’ and ‘carbyne’ for the radicals H2C2• and HC3•, respectively." 
  2. "Gas Encyclopedia". http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/Encyclopedia.asp?GasID=41. Retrieved November 7, 2013. 
  3. NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, US GOV. "METHANE". http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/8823. 
  4. White House Unveils Plans to Cut Methane Emissions March 28, 2014 New York Times
  5. Brad Plumer (December 12, 2016). "Methane levels in the atmosphere are now rising at their fastest pace in decades; It’s a big problem for climate change.". Vox.com. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2016/12/12/13915950/methane-atmosphere-rise-agriculture. Retrieved 18 December 2016.