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Acetone[1]
Acetone-CRC-MW-ED-dimensions-2D.png
Acetone-2D-skeletal.svg
Acetone-3D-balls.png
Acetone-3D-vdW.png
Sample of Acetone.jpg
Other names
  • Acetone
  • Dimethyl ketone[3]
  • Dimethyl carbonyl
  • β-Ketopropane[3]
  • Propanone[4]
  • 2-Propanone[3]
  • Dimethyl formaldehyde[5]
  • Pyroacetic spirit (archaic)[6]
  • Ketone propane[7]
Identifiers
CAS number 67-64-1
PubChem 180
EC number 200-662-2
KEGG D02311
MeSH Acetone
ChEBI CHEBI:15347
RTECS number AL3150000
SMILES CC(=O)C
Beilstein Reference 635680
Gmelin Reference 1466
3DMet B00058
Properties
Molecular formula C3H6O
Molar mass 58.07 g mol-1
Appearance Colorless liquid
Odor Pungent, irritating, floral, cucumber like
Density 0.7845 g/cm3 (25 °C)
Melting point

−94.7 °C, 178 K, -138 °F

Boiling point

56.05 °C, 329 K, 133 °F

Solubility in water Miscible
Solubility Miscible in benzene, diethyl ether, methanol, chloroform, ethanol[8]
log P -0.16[9]
Vapor pressure
  • 9.39 kPa (0 °C)
  • 30.6 kPa (25 °C)
  • 374 kPa (100 °C)
  • 2.8 MPa (200 °C)[3]
Acidity (pKa)
−33.78·10−6 cm3/mol
Refractive index (nD) 1.3588 (VD = 54.46)
Viscosity 0.295 mPa·s (25 °C)[8]
Structure
Coordination
geometry
Trigonal planar at C2
Molecular shape Dihedral at C2
Dipole moment 2.91 D
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
(−250.03)  (−248.77) kJ/mol
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−1.772 MJ/mol
Standard molar
entropy
So298
200.4 J/(mol·K)
Specific heat capacity, C 125.45 J/(mol·K)
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

3
1
0
 
Explosive limits 2.6–12.8%[12]
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
1000 ppm (2400 mg/m3)[7]
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Acetone, or propanone, is an organic compound with the chemical formula (CH3)2CO. This clear, mobile, easy-to-burn liquid is the simplest example of the ketones. Acetone can be mixed with water. It is an important solvent, often to clean things in the laboratory. Common uses of acetone in the home are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and as paint thinner. It is a common building block in organic chemistry.

Sources

  1. The Merck Index, 15th Ed. (2013), p. 13, Acetone Monograph 65, O'Neil: The Royal Society of Chemistry.Template:Subscription needed
  2. Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book). Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry. 2014. p. 723. doi:10.1039/9781849733069-FP001 . ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4 . 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Acetone in Linstrom, Peter J.; Mallard, William G. (eds.); NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg (MD), http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-11)
  4. Klamt, Andreas (2005). COSMO-RS: From Quantum Chemistry to Fluid Phase Thermodynamics and Drug Design. Elsevier. pp. 92–94. ISBN 978-0-444-51994-8 . 
  5. Ash, Michael; Ash, Irene (2004). Handbook of preservatives. Synapse Information Resources, Inc.. p. 369. ISBN 1-890595-66-7 . 
  6. Myers, Richard L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide. Greenwood. pp. 4–6. ISBN 978-0-313-08057-9 . 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0260". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0260.html. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Properties of substance: acetone. chemister.ru.
  9. "acetone". https://www.chemsrc.com/en/cas/67-64-1_329617.html. 
  10. Chiang, Yvonne; Kresge, A. Jerry; Tang, Yui S.; Wirz, Jakob (1984). "The pKa and keto-enol equilibrium constant of acetone in aqueous solution". Journal of the American Chemical Society 106 (2): 460–462. doi:10.1021/ja00314a055 . 
  11. Bordwell, Frederick G. (1988). "Equilibrium acidities in dimethyl sulfoxide solution". Accounts of Chemical Research 21 (12): 456–463. doi:10.1021/ar00156a004 . 
  12. "Working with modern hydrocarbon and oxygenated solvents: a guide to flammability". American Chemistry Council Solvents Industry Group. January 2008. p. 7. http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_acc/sec_solvents.asp?CID=1488&DID=5735.