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Excommunication is a religious act used to take off or suspend membership in a religious community.
The word literally means out of communion, or no longer in communion. In some churches, excommunication includes spiritual condemnation of the member or group. Sometimes sanctions follow excommunication; these include banishment, shunning, and shaming, depending on the group's religion or religious community.
- De Fide, a non-profit association, uses Canon Law to defend the Roman Catholic Church from Heresy by filing lawsuits in Ecclesiastical Court, seeking the excommunication of impenitent offenders.
- Elizabeth Vargas Reports on Sexual Abuse Inside The Amish Community on ABC's "20/20", Friday, Dec 10, 2004
- Excommunication, the Ban, Church Discipline and Avoidance (from Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online)
- Ritual and the Social Meaning and Meaninglessness of Religion (Social science study of Old Order Mennonite methods of baptism, discipline, etc.)
- Ostracism on Trial: The Limits of Individual Rights (Amish)
- ALL OR NOTHING STATEMENTS (From Those Who Have 'The Truth') (from cult exiter source)
- Catholic Encyclopaedia on excommunication
- The two sides of excommunication
- Episcopal Church of America excommunication
- ECUSA excommunication and Church of England
- Encyclopedia of American Religions, by J. Gordon Melton ISBN 0-8103-6904-4
- Ludlow, Daniel H. ed, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Macmillan Publishing, 1992.