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The word literally means out of communion, or no longer in communion. In some churches, excommunication includes the belief that the person who was exocommunicated is going to Hell. Sometimes punishment follow excommunication; these include being banned, shunning, and shaming, depending on the group's religion or religious community.
- Encyclopedia of American Religions, by J. Gordon Melton ISBN 0-8103-6904-4
- Ludlow, Daniel H. ed, Encyclopedia of Mormonism, Macmillan Publishing, 1992.
- De Fide, a non-profit association, uses Canon Law to defend the Roman Catholic Church from Heresy by filing lawsuits in Ecclesiastical Court, seeking the excommunication of impenitent offenders.
- Excommunication, the Ban, Church Discipline and Avoidance (from Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online)
- Catholic Encyclopaedia on excommunication
- The two sides of excommunication
- Episcopal Church of America excommunication