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|Directed by||Tod Browning|
|Produced by||Tod Browning|
|Written by||Tod Robbins|
|Cinematography||Merritt B. Gerstad|
|Edited by||Basil Wrangell|
|February 20, 1932|
Freaks is a 1932 MGM horror movie about circus sideshow performers. It was directed and produced by Tod Browning. The cast is mostly actual traveling carnival performers. The movie was based on Tod Robbins' 1923 story "Spurs". Director Browning cast real people with deformities as the sideshow "freaks," rather than using costumes and makeup. The movie was not popular. In 1994, Freaks was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
- "Freaks". The New York Times. 1932. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=9E07E6D61031E333A2575AC0A9619C946394D6CF.
- Mark Chalon Smith (1995-10-30). "Grotesquerie Is Merely a Sideshow in 'Freaks'". The Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1995-10-30/entertainment/ca-62791_1_freaks-movie-browning.