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French invasion of Russia
The French Invasion of Russia in 1812, also known as the Russian Campaign in France (French: Campagne de Russie) and the Patriotic War of 1812 in Russia (Russian: Отечественная война 1812 года), was when Napoleon Bonaparte led the French Empire to invade Russia. It was the turning point during the Napoleonic Wars, because it was the first major defeat for Napoleon. It reduced the French and allied invasion forces (the Grande Armée) to a tiny part of their starting strength. It started a major change in European politics as it greatly weakened France's power over Europe. The French Empire's former allies, at first Prussia and then the Austrian Empire, broke their alliance with France. They went against France instead, which started the War of the Sixth Coalition.
- Boudon Jacques-Olivier, Napoléon et la campagne de Russie: 1812, Armand Colin, 2012.
- Fierro; Palluel-Guillard; Tulard, p. 159-161
- History of the Expedition to Russia Undertaken by the Emperor Napoleon in the Year 1812, by the count de Ségur (Gutenberg Project ebook)
- Napoleon's Invasion of Russia 1812 + color maps
- Alternative version of Minard's map (using modern country boundaries)
- Alternative version of Minard's map (zoomed-out, to show area in relationship to the rest of Europe)
- French invasion of 1812, view from Russia
- Patriotic War of 1812, Moscow's Cathedral of Christ the Savior, 1-22