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Japanese garden (日本庭園 nihon teien ) is a traditional kind of garden in Japan. The garden is made to be like a small landscape. The basic principle of a Japanese garden is to create harmony and balance.
There are many types of Japanese gardens, for example,
- The contemplation or thinking style of garden (kanshō) is designed to be studied and enjoyed from one specific place. An example of a kanshō garden is the rock and raked gravel garden at Ryōan-ji in Kyoto.
- The stroll or walking style of garden (shūyū) is intended to be looked at from a path. The garden is discovered as the viewer walks along the path. An example of a shūyū garden is at Ginkaku-ji in Kyoto.
- The boating or pleasure-boat style of garden (funasobi) is centered on a large pond. The best views are seen from a boat in the pond. An example of a funasobi gardem is at Byōdō-in at Uji, which is near Kyoto.
- Many-pleasure style of garden (kaiyū) has a central pond and many paths. It combines aspects of kanshō, shūyū and funasobi gardens. An example of a kaiyū garden is at Katsura Imperial Villa.
- Gunter Nitschke, Le jardin japonais, pg. 9-10.
- "How to Make a Japanese Garden" at GoneGardening.com, May 4, 2012; retrieved 2012-10-2.
- Takei, Jiro et al. (2001). Sakuteiki Visions of the Japanese Garden: A Modern Translation of Japan's Gardening Classic, p. 3 n1.
- Rowthorn, Chris. (2008). Lonely Planet Kyoto City Guide, p. 35.