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|John Bertrand Gurdon|
2 October 1933|
University of Oxford|
University of Cambridge
California Institute of Technology
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
|Doctoral advisor||Michael Fischberg|
|Known for||Nuclear transfer, cloning|
Wolf Prize in Medicine (1989)|
Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award (2009)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2012)
Sir John Bertrand Gurdon (JBG) FRS (born 2 October 1933) is a British developmental biologist. He is best known for his pioneering research in nuclear transplantation, and cloning. He was awarded the Lasker Award in 2009 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2012.
Honours and awards
Gurdon was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1971, and was knighted in 1995. In 2004, the Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer was renamed the Gurdon Institute in his honour. He has also received numerous awards, medals and honorary degrees. He has been awarded the 2009 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research award.
In 2012 Gurdon was awarded, jointly with Shinya Yamanaka, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent". "Pluripotent" cells are stem cells.
In 1958, Gurdon, then at the University of Oxford, successfully cloned a frog using intact nuclei from the somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole. This was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells.
Gurdon’s experiments captured the attention of the scientific community and the tools and techniques he developed for nuclear transfer are still used today.
Messenger RNA expression
Gurdon and colleagues also pioneered the use of Xenopus (genus of highly aquatic frog) eggs and oocytes to translate microinjected messenger RNA molecules. This technique has been widely used to identify the proteins encoded, and to study their function.
Gurdon's recent research has focused on analysing intercellular signalling factors involved in cell differentiation, and on elucidating the mechanisms involved in reprogramming the nucleus in transplantation experiments, including demethylation of the transplanted DNA.
- Williams R. 2008. Sir John Gurdon: Godfather of cloning. The Journal of Cell Biology 181 (2): 178–179. 
- Gurdon J. & Byrne J.A. 2003. The first half-century of nuclear transplantation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (14): 8048. 
- Gurdon J.B. 2006. From nuclear transfer to nuclear reprogramming: the reversal of cell differentiation. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology 22: 1–22. 
- Gurdon J.B. & Melton D.A. 2008. Nuclear reprogramming in cells. Science 322 (5909): 1811–1815. 
- Kain K. 2009. The birth of cloning: An interview with John Gurdon. Disease Models and Mechanisms 2 (1–2): 9–10. 
- Gurdon J. 2003. John Gurdon. Current biology : CB 13 (19): R759–R760. 
- Gurdon J. 2000. Not a total waste of time: an interview with John Gurdon. Interview by James C Smith. The International journal of developmental biology 44 (1): 93–99.
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine - 2012 Press Release". Nobel Media AB. 2012-10-08. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2012/press.html.
- "The Gurdon Institute". http://www.gurdon.cam.ac.uk/. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
- Rodney Porter Lectures: Biography
- "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012". NobelPrize.org. October 08, 2012. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2012/. Retrieved October 08, 2012.
- Gurdon J.B; Elsdale T.R. & Fischberg M. 1958. Sexually mature individuals of Xenopus laevis from the transplantation of single somatic nuclei. Nature 182 (4627): 64–65. 
- Gurdon J.B. 1962. The developmental capacity of nuclei taken from intestinal epithelium cells of feeding tadpoles. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology 10: 622–640. 
- Robert Briggs and Thomas J. King 1952. Transplantation of living nuclei from blastula cells into enucleated frogs' eggs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 38 (5): 455–463. 
- Gurdon J.B. et al 1971. Use of frog eggs and oocytes for the study of messenger RNA and its translation in living cells. Nature 233 (5316): 177–182. 
- Simonsson S. & Gurdon J. 2004. DNA demethylation is necessary for the epigenetic reprogramming of somatic cell nuclei. Nature Cell Biology 6 (10): 984–990.