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Treaty of Verdun
The Treaty of Verdun (843) happened several generations after Charlemagne and divided his empire into three parts. When Charlemagne's grandson Louis the Pious died in 840, his oldest son Lothair I said that he ruled his younger brothers and their lands. But his brothers Louis the German and Charles the Bald won the Battle of Fontenay (841).
Division of the empire
- Lothair got the central part of the empire - what later became the Low Countries, Lorraine, Alsace, Burgundy, Provence, and Italy.
- Louis the German received East Francia. Louis became of all lands to the east of the Rhine river and to the north and east of Italy. This area became the Medieval Holy Roman Empire and parts of it later became modern Germany.