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|Centuries:||12th century – 13th century – 14th century|
|Decades:||1220s 1230s 1240s – 1250s – 1260s 1270s 1280s|
|Years:||1254 1255 1256 – 1257 – 1258 1259 1260|
- Robert de Sorbon founds the Collège de Sorbonne at Paris, giving a formal college (and still-common name) to the already existing University of Paris in France.
- Matthew Paris, English historian, personally interviews King Henry III of England for a week straight while compiling his major work of English history, Chronica Majora.
- King Henry III of England orders the production of an twenty pence English coin of pure gold, the first high-denomination coin minted in England and the first to use gold. Unfortunately for King Henry, the bullion value of the coins was about 20% higher than the nominal face value, leading to poor circulation as coins were melted down by individuals for their gold content.
- The second Genoese War breaks out between Genoa and Venice in Outremer known as the War of Saint Sabas.
- The city of Kraków is rebuilt by Boleslaus V of Poland after being nearly destroyed in the Tatar invasions in 1241.
- The Japanese Kōgen era ends, and the Shōka era begins.
- Mongols take Annam (northern Vietnam).
- Aberdeen Grammar School opened.
- October 14 – King Przemysł II of Poland (d. 1296)
- Beatrice of Burgundy (died 1310)
- King Sancho IV of Castile and León (died 1295)