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Bharat Ratna

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Bharat Ratna (Hindi: भारत रत्न, meaning Jewel of India,[1] or Gem of India)[2] is the highest civilian award in India. They are given to people who have given the highest level of service in artistic, literary or scientific achievements.[3] As of 2011, it can also be given to sportspeople.[4]


  1. Mahajan, Vidya Dhar (1971). The Constitution of India. Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh: Eastern Book Company. p. 169. 
  2. Hoiberg, Dale; Indu Ramchandani (2000). Students' Britannica India. New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica (India). pp. Vol. 3, p.198. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5 . 
  3. Pylee, Moolamattom Varkey (1971). The Constitution of India. New Delhi: S. Chand & Company Ltd.. p. 114. ISBN 978-81-219-2203-6 . 
  4. Govt changes criteria for Bharat Ratna; now open for all. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 16 December 2011.