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Republic of India
भारत गणराज्य
Bhārat Gaṇarājya
Horizontal tricolour flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes. Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: "सत्यमेव जयते".
Flag Emblem
"Satyameva Jayate" (Sanskrit)
सत्यमेव जयते (Devanāgarī)
   "Truth Alone Triumphs"[1]
Jana Gana Mana
   "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"[2]
    National song:[a]
Vande Mataram
     "I Bow to Thee, Mother"[1]
Image of a South Asia centred on the Republic of India, with disputed and occupied territories highlighted.
Area controlled by India is in dark red.
Claimed and controlled regions are in light red.
and largest city
New Delhi
28°36.8′N 77°12.5′E / 28.6133°N 77.2083°E / 28.6133; 77.2083
Official languages
Recognised regional languages
National languages None defined by the Constitution[3]
Demonym Indian
Government Federal parliamentary
constitutional republic[1]
 -  President Pranab Mukherjee
 -  Prime Minister Narendra Modi (NDA)
 -  Speaker of the House Sumitra Mahajan (NDA)
 -  Chief Justice H L Dattu
Legislature Parliament of India
 -  Upper house Rajya Sabha
 -  Lower house Lok Sabha
Independence from the United Kingdom
 -  Declared 15 August 1947 
 -  Republic 26 January 1950 
 -  Total 3,287,263 km2[upper-alpha 1] (7th)
1,269,219 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 9.56
 -  2011 census 1,210,193,422[4] (2nd)
 -  Density 405/km2 (31st)
1,048.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $4.469 trillion[5] (3rd)
 -  Per capita $3,703[5]
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $1.996 trillion[5] (9th)
 -  Per capita $1,527[5]
Gini (2004)36.8[6]
medium · 79th
HDI (2011)0.641[7]
medium · 79th
Currency Indian rupee (INR) (INR)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+05:30)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Drives on the left
Calling code 91
Internet TLD .in

The Republic of India (Hindi: भारत गणराज्य) is a country in Asia. It is at the center of South Asia. India has more than 1.2 billion (1,210,000,000) people, which is the second largest population in the world.[8] It is the seventh largest country in the world by area. India has seven neighbours, Pakistan in the north-west, China and Nepal in the north, Bhutan and Bangladesh in the north-east, Myanmar in the east and Sri Lanka in the south. India is the largest democracy in the world by population.[9] The capital of India is New Delhi. India is a peninsula, bound by the Indian Ocean in the south, the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal in the east. The coastline of India is of about 7,517 km (4,671 mi) long.[10] India has the third largest army in the world[11][12] and nuclear weapons.[13]

India is a growing economy, regarded as fastest growing country along with China.[14] In terms of Literacy, Wealth, India has done a good job.[15] Although regarded as 83rd most corrupt nation out of 174 most recognized countries,[16] as per Corruption Perceptions Index, Indian government has faced thousands of protest since April 2011, where people have demanded many major politicians to resign, and give up all the money which they have earned through corruption.[17]

India is a founding member of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), and has signed the Kyoto Protocol.

India has the most number of spoken language per country in world. Many people of different religion lived here.

National Symbols of India


The Taj Mahal in Agra was built by Shah Jahan as a memorial to his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is thought to be of "outstanding universal value".[18]

Two of the main Classical languages of the world— Sanskrit and Tamil, were born in India. Both of these languages are more than 3000 years old. The country founded a religion called Hinduism, which most Indians still follow. Later, a king called Ashoka built an empire called the Maurya dynasty in 300 BC. It made most of South Asia into one whole country.[19] From 180 BC, many other countries invaded India. Even later (100 BC  — AD 1100), other Indian dynasties (empires) came, including the Chalukyas, Cholas, Pallavas, and Pandyas.[20] South India at that time was famous for its very good science, art, and writing.

Many dynasties ruled India around the year 1000. Some of these were the Mughal, Vijayanagara, and the Maratha empires. In the 1600s, European countries invaded India, and the British controlled most of India by 1856.[21]

In the early 1900s, millions of people peacefully started to protest. One of the people who were leading the freedom movement was Mahatma Gandhi, who only used peaceful tactics, including a way called "ahimsa", which means "non-violence".[22] On 15 August 1947, India peacefully became free and independent from the British Empire. India's constitution was founded on 26 January 1950. The first official leader (Prime Minister) of India was Jawaharlal Nehru.

After 1947, India has pursued a socialist planned economy. It is one founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. It has fought many wars since independence from Britain, including the ones in 1947-48, 1965, 1971, and 1999 with Pakistan and in 1962 with China. It also fought a war to capture Goa, a Portuguese-built port and city which was not a part of India until 1961. But the Portuguese refused and so India had to use force and the Portuguese were defeated. India has also done nuclear tests in 1974 and 1998, and it is one of the few countries that has nuclear bombs.[23] Since 1991, India has been one of the fastest-growing economies in the world.[24]


Parliament of India.

India is the largest democracy in the world.[9] Its government is divided into three branches: the Legislative (the one that makes the laws, the Parliament), the Executive (the government), and the Judiciary (the one that makes sure that the laws are obeyed, the supreme court).

The Legislative branch is made up of the Parliament of India, which is in New Delhi, the capital of India. The Parliament of India is divided into two groups: the upper house, Rajya Sabha (Council of States); and the lower house, Lok Sabha (House of People). The Rajya Sabha has 250 members,[25] and the Lok Sabha has 545 members.[25]

The Executive branch is made up of the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, and the Council of Ministers. The President of India is elected for five years. The President can choose the Prime Minister, who has most of the power. The Council of Ministers, such as the Minister of Defence, help the Prime Minister.

The Judicial branch is made up of the courts of India, including the Supreme Court. The Chief Justice of India is the head of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court members have the power to stop a law being passed by Parliament if they think that the law is illegal and contradicts (opposes) the Constitution of India.[26] In India, there are also 21 High Courts.

Geography and climate

Rivers of India

India is the seventh largest country in the world. It is the main part of the Indian subcontinent. The countries next to India are Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Bhutan, and Nepal. It is also near Sri Lanka, an island country.

India is a peninsula, which means that it is surrounded on three sides by water. In the west is the Arabian Sea, in the south is the Indian Ocean, and in the east is the Bay of Bengal. The northern part of India has many mountains. The most famous mountain range in India is the Himalayas, which have some of the tallest mountains in the world. There are many rivers in India. The main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, the Kaveri, the Narmada, and the Krishna.

India has different climates.[27] In the South, the climate is mainly tropical, which means it can get very hot in summer and cool in winter.[27] The northern part, though, has a cooler climate, called sub-tropical, and even alpine in mountainous regions.[27] The Himalayas, in the alpine climate region, can get extremely cold. There is very heavy rainfall along the west coast and in the Eastern Himalayan foothills. The west, though, is drier. Because of some of the deserts of India, all of India gets rain for four months of the year. That time is called the monsoon. That is so because the deserts attract water-filled winds from the Indian Ocean, which give rain when they come into India. When the monsoon rains come late or not so heavily, droughts (when the land wears out because there is less rain) are possible.

Indian states

For administration purposes, India has been divided into smaller pieces. Most of these pieces are called states, some are called union territories. States and union territories are different in the way they are represented. Most union territories are ruled by administrators sent by the central government. All the states, and the territories of Dehli, and Puducherry elect their local government themselves. In total, there are twenty-eight states, and seven union territories.[28]

These are the states and territories of India, including 28 states and 7 union territories.


  1. Andhra Pradesh
  2. Arunachal Pradesh
  3. Assam
  4. Bihar
  5. Chhattisgarh
  6. Goa
  7. Gujarat
  8. Haryana
  9. Himachal Pradesh
  10. Jammu and Kashmir
  11. Jharkhand
  12. Karnataka
  13. Kerala
  14. Madhya Pradesh
  1. Maharashtra
  2. Manipur
  3. Meghalaya
  4. Mizoram
  5. Nagaland
  6. Orissa
  7. Punjab
  8. Rajasthan
  9. Sikkim
  10. Tamil Nadu
  11. Telangana
  12. Tripura
  13. Uttar Pradesh
  14. Uttarakhand
  15. West Bengal

Union territories:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  2. Chandigarh
  3. Dadra and Nagar Haveli
  4. Daman and Diu
  5. Lakshadweep
  6. National Capital Territory of Delhi
  7. Puducherry

Trouble with the borders

There are disputes about certain parts of the Indian borders. Countries do not agree on where the borders are. Pakistan and China do not recognise the disputed territory of Occupied Kashmir. The Indian government calls it Jammu and Kashmir and believes it is an Indian state. Similarly, the Republic of India does not recognise the Pakistani and Chinese parts of Kashmir.

In 1914, British India and Tibet agreed on the McMahon Line, as part of the Simla Accord. Indians and Tibetans see this line as the official border. China does not agree, and both mainland China and Taiwan do not recognize that Arunachal Pradesh belongs to India. According to them, it is a part of South Tibet, which belongs to China.[29][30]


The economy of the country is among world's fastest growing. The economy of India is the 3rd largest in the world with a GDP of $4798 billion. In terms of PPP, the economy is 3rd largest (worth $4.798 trillion U.S.). The growth rate is 8.25% for fiscal 2010. However, that is still $3678 (considering PPP) per person per year. India's economy is based mainly on service sector=43%, Industries=41%, I.T=7%, farming=7%, Outsourcing=2%.

India's economy is diverse. Major industries include automobiles, cement, chemicals, consumer electronics, food processing, machinery, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, steel, transportation equipment, and textiles.[31]

However despite economic growth, India suffers from poverty. 27.5% of the population was living in poverty in 2004–2005.[32] In addition, 80.4% of the population live on less than USD $2 a day,[33] which was lowered to 68% by 2009.[34]


This is a map of the population density of India.

There are 1.12 billion people living in India.[35] India is the second largest country by the number of people living in it, with China being the first. Experts think that by the year 2030, India will be the first.[36] About 70% of Indians live on farms.[37] The largest cities in India are Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, and Ahmedabad.[28] India has 23 official languages.[38] Altogether, 1.625 languages are spoken in India.[39]


There are many different languages and cultures in India. The only geographical place with more different languages and cultures is the African continent.[28] There are two main language families in India, the Indo-Aryan and the Dravidian languages. About 69% of Indians speak an Indo-Arayan language, about 26% speak a Dravidian language. Other languages spoken in India come from the Austro-Asiatic group. Around 5% of the people speak a Tibeto-Burman language.

Hindi is the official language in India with the largest number of speakers.[40] It is the official language of the union.[41] Native speakers of Hindi represent about 41% of the Indian population (2001 Indian census). English is also used, mostly for business and in the administration. It has the status of a 'subsidiary official language'.[42] The constitution also recognises 21 other languages. Either many people speak those languages, or they have been recognised to be very important for Indian culture. The number of dialects in India is as high as 1,652.[39]

In the south of India, many people speak Kannada, Telugu, Tamil and Malayalam. In the north, many people speak Chhattisgarhi, Punjabi, Bengali, Gujarati, and Marathi, Oriya, and Bihari.[43][44]

India has 23 official languages. Its constitution lists the name of the country in each of the languages.[45] Hindi and English (listed in boldface) are the "official languages of the union" (Union meaning the Federal Government in Delhi);[46] Tamil and Sanskrit kannada are officially the "classical languages of India."

Language Long form English Pronunciation Short form
Assamese ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য Bhārôt Gôṇôrājÿô ভাৰত Bharot
Bengali ভারত গণরাজ্য Bʰārôt Gôṇôrājÿô ভারত Bharot
English[31] Republic of India India
Gujarati ભારતીય પ્રજાસત્તાક Bhartiya Prajasattak ભારત
Rajasthani भारत गणराज्य Bhārata Gaṇarājya भारत Bhārat
Hindi भारत गणराज्य Bhārata Gaṇarājya भारत Bhārat
Kannada ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ Bhārata Gaṇarājya ಭಾರತ Bhārata
Kashmiri ہِندوستان Hindustān
Konkani भारोत गोणराज भारोत
Malayalam ഭാരതം Bhāratam ഭാരതം Bhāratam
Manipuri (also Meitei or Meithei) ভারত গণরাজ্য ভারত
Marathi भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक Bhartiya Prajasattak भारत Bhārat
Nepali भारत गणराज्य Bʰārat Gaṇarādzya भारत Bʰārat
Oriya ଭାରତ Bharata Bharata
Punjabi ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ Bhārat Gantantar ਭਾਰਤ Bhārat
Sanskrit भारत गणराज्यम् Bhārata Gaṇarājyam भारत Bhārata
Sindhi ڀارت، هندستانڀارت، ڀارت،
Tamil இந்தியக் குடியரசு Indiyak-Kudiyarasu இந்தியா India/Bharadham
Telugu భారత గణరాజ్యము Bʰārata Gaṇa Rājyamu భారత్ Bhārath
Urdu جمہوریہ بھارت Jumhūrīyat-e Bhārat بھارت Bhārat


Religion in India[47]
Religion Percent

Cave paintings from the Stone Age are found across India. They show dances and rituals and suggest there was a prehistoric religion. During the Epic and Puranic periods, the earliest versions of the epic poems Ramayana and Mahabharata were written from about 500–100 BCE,[48] although these were transmitted for centuries before this period.[49] Other South Asian Stone Age sites apart from Pakistan are in modern India, such as the Bhimbetka rock shelters in central Madhya Pradesh and the Kupgal petroglyphs of eastern Karnataka, contain rock art showing religious rites and evidence of possible music.[50]

The Harmandir Sahib or The Golden Temple of the Sikhs.

Several modern religions are linked to India,[51] namely modern Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Ayyavazhi and Sikhism. All of these religions have different schools (ways of thinking) and traditions that are related. As a group they are called the Eastern religions. The Indian religions are similar to one another in many ways: The basic beliefs, the way worship is done and several religious practices are very similar. These similarities mainly come from the fact that these religions have a common history and common origins. They also influenced each other.

The religion of Hinduism is the main faith followed by 81.0% of people in the Republic of India; Islam – 12.8%; Christianity – 2.9%; Sikhism – 1.9%; Buddhism – 0.8% and Jainism – 0.4%.[52]


Cricketers in a game in front of nearly-full stands.
A 2008 Indian Premier League Twenty20 cricket match being played between the Chennai Super Kings and Kolkata Knight Riders

India's official national sport is field hockey which is controlled by the Indian Hockey Federation. The Indian field hockey team won the 1975 Men's Hockey World Cup. They have also won eight gold, one silver and two bronze medals at the Olympic games. However, cricket is the most popular sport in India. The India cricket team won the 1983 and 2011 Cricket World Cup and the 2007 ICC World Twenty20. They shared the 2002 ICC Champions Trophy with Sri Lanka. Cricket in India is controlled by the Board of Control for Cricket in India or BCCI. Domestic tournaments are the Ranji Trophy, the Duleep Trophy, the Deodhar Trophy, the Irani Trophy and the Challenger Series. There is also the Indian cricket league and Indian premier league Twenty20 competitions.

Tennis has become popular due to the victories of the India Davis Cup team. Association football is also a popular sport in northeast India, West Bengal, Goa and Kerala.[53] The Indian national football team has won the South Asian Football Federation Cup many times. Chess, which comes from India, is also becoming popular. This is with the increase in the number of Indian Grandmasters.[54] Traditional sports include kabaddi, kho kho, and gilli-danda, which are played throughout India.


  1. "[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." (Constituent Assembly of India 1950).
  2. "The country’s exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as 3,287,260 km2 (1,269,220 sq mi) and the total land area as 3,060,500 km2 (1,181,700 sq mi); the United Nations lists the total area as 3,287,263 km2 (1,269,219 sq mi) and total land area as 2,973,190 km2 (1,147,960 sq mi)." (Library of Congress 2004).


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 National Informatics Centre 2005.
  2. Wolpert 2003, p. 1.
  3. The Times of India 2007.
  4. Ministry of Home Affairs 2011.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 International Monetary Fund.
  6. Central Intelligence Agency.
  7. United Nations 2011.
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Country profile: India". British Broadcasting Corporation. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 2005-55-21.
  10. Kumar, V. Sanil; K. C. Pathak, P. Pednekar, N. S. N. Raju (2006). "Coastal processes along the Indian coastline" (PDF). Current Science 91 (4): 530–536.
  11. "The world's ten largest armies". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  12. "Largest Army in the World". Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  13. "India Nuclear Forces". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
  18. "Taj Mahal". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 28 September 2007. "The World Heritage List includes 851 properties forming part of the cultural and natural heritage which the World Heritage Committee considers as having outstanding universal value."
  19. Jona Lendering. "Maurya dynasty". Retrieved 2007-06-17.
  20. "South India". Suni System Ltd.. 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  21. "From Trade to Colonization - Historic Dynamics of the East India Companies". 3 June 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  22. Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. pp. p. 455. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4 .
  23. "India Profile". NTI. 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-20.
  24. Montek S. Ahluwalia (2002). "Economic Reforms in India since 1991: Has Gradualism Worked?" (MS Word). Journal of Economic Perspectives. Retrieved 2007-06-13.
  25. 25.0 25.1 "Our Parliament A brief description of the Indian Parliament". Retrieved 2007-06-16.
  26. Matthew, K.M. (2008). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama. pp. pg 524. ISBN 81-89004-07-7 .
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. pp. p. 333. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4 .
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 "Country Profile: India" (PDF). Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. December 2004. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  29. "China revives claims on Indian territory". Islamic Republic News Agency. Retrieved 2007-08-26.
  30. India-Taiwan Relations: In Delicate Minuet
  31. 31.0 31.1 "CIA Factbook: India". CIA. Retrieved 2007-03-10.
  32. "Poverty estimates for 2004-05". Planning Commission,Government of India. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
  33. "Human Development Report 2007/2008 - Population living below $2 a day (%)". United Nations Development Programme. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
  35. "Most populated countries". Compare Infobase Limited. Retrieved 2009-08-11.
  36. Concise Encyclopedia. Dorling Kindersly Limited. 1997. pp. p. 332. ISBN 0-7513-5911-4 .
  37. "Census of India 2001". Census of India. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  38. "Languages of India". India image. Retrieved August 14, 2005.
  39. 39.0 39.1 Matthew, K.M. (2006). Manorama Yearbook 2003. Malayala Manorama. pp. pg 524. ISBN 81-89004-07-7 .
  40. "Languages by number of speakers according to 1991 census". Central Institute of Indian Languages. Retrieved August 2, 2007.
  41. Mallikarjun, B. (Nov., 2004), Fifty Years of Language Planning for Modern Hindi–The Official Language of India, Language in India, Volume 4, Number 11. ISSN 1930-2940.
  42. "Notification No. 2/8/60-O.L. (Ministry of Home Affairs), dated 27 April, 1960". Retrieved July 4, 2007.
  43. Prabodh Bechardas Pandit, "Language in a Plural Society", Dev Raj Chanana Memorial Committee, 1977.
  44. Robert McHenry, "The New Encyclopaedia Britannica", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1993.
  45. "Eighth Schedule". National Informatics Centre (NIC). 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-26.
  46. "The Union: Official Language". National Informatics Centre (NIC). 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-24.
  47. Religious Composition
  48. Goldman 2007, p. 23.
  49. Rinehart 2004, p. 28.
  50. "Ancient Indians made 'rock music'". BBC News. 19 March 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-07.
  51. Adams, C. J., Classification of religions: Geographical, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Accessed: 5 September 2007
  52. "Census of India 2001, Data on Religion". Census of India. Retrieved April 12, 2007.
  53. Majumdar & Bandyopadhyay 2006, pp. 1–5
  54. "Anand crowned World champion". Rediff. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2008-10-29.

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