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People's Republic of Bangladesh
and largest city
|Dhaka (formerly Dacca)|
|Government||Unitary parliamentary democracy|
|Shirin Sharmin Chaudhury|
|Md. Muzammel Hossain|
|26 March 1971|
• Current constitution
|4 November 1972|
|147,570 km2 (56,980 sq mi) (94th)|
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
|964.42/km2 (2,497.8/sq mi) (9th)|
Bangladesh (officially called People's Republic of Bangladesh) is a country in South Asia. It is next to the North-east Indian provincial regions of India, which converges with Southeast Asia to the east. Its full name is The People's Republic of Bangla-Desh. The capital and the largest city is Dhaka (also spelled 'Dacca'). Bangladesh is surrounded on all three sides by the Republic of India (Bharat), and Myanmar (Burma) on the south-eastern corner, it is near the People's Republic of China, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal. Its independence was fully realised after it declared it self as independent most of 1971 from Pakistan after a bloody war in which over a million people died. Later by Indian military intervention, by that time the provisional government went into exile in Calcutta, Bengal (India) which they considered their homeland to be under Pakistani military occupation. After the Instrument of Surrender, the Bengali peoples became a sovereign nation and when its founder was released from political imprisonment had returned in 1972. Present-day Bangladesh has an area of 56,977 mi² or (147,570 km²).
Islam took in shape foothold in the 13th century. Bangladesh used to be called East Bengal, after they had fought hard for a Muslim homeland in 1947 and was made a part of United Pakistan, However by 1955 its citizens were commonly referred to as East Pakistanis. Dacca was then the legislative capital of Pakistani Bengal provincial region. The peoples of East Pakistan were mostly ethnic Bengalis who had a different language and culture to the people of western Pakistani. These differences eventually led to the Bangladesh Liberation War. On 16 December 1971, Bangladesh gained independence, with the help of allied forces against West Pakistani forces.
After the birth of Bangladesh, Bangla replaced Urdu and English as the sole national and official language, and was the language taught in schools and used in business and government. The Bangla Academy was important in this change. In the 1980s, British-style education was maintained through private English-language institutions attended by upper class children. English continued to be taught in higher education and was offered as a subject for university degrees.
At first, Arabic also lost ground in independent Bangladesh. This trend ended in the late 1970s, however, after Bangladesh strengthened its ties with Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich, Arabic-speaking countries. An unsuccessful attempt was made in 1983 to introduce Arabic as a required language in primary and secondary levels. Arabic is widely studied in Madrassas and Islamic institutions around the country for better understanding of the Quran, Hadith and any other Islamic texts.
Despite 30 years of independence, Bangladesh is still a poor country and has problems with corruption and political troubles as the other country have. Presently more than half of the people can read and write.
Bangladesh has heavy cyclones and natural disasters, which because of carbon release at a higher ratio by Rich Country and warming the world. Due to this many lives are often lost. The country is one of the most densely populated in the world. Cyclones are very common in the Bay of Bengal during the middle of the year, particularly in the south of country in areas like Sundarban, Chittagong, Cox's Bazaar or in neighboring Myanmar and Republic of India. Despite the many storms, Bangladesh does not have a very effective storm prevention system, and cyclones usually inflict heavy damage.
Bangladesh is in the Ganges Delta. This is where the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna come together. Most parts of Bangladesh are less than 12 m (39.4 ft) above the sea level. The highest point in Bangladesh is in Mowdok range at 1,052 m (3,451 ft) in the Chittagong Hill Tracts to the southeast of the country. Cox's Bazar, south of the city of Chittagong, has a beach that is uninterrupted over 120 km (75 mi).
Divisions are divided into districts. There are 64 districts in Bangladesh.
Dhaka is the capital and largest city of Bangladesh. Other major cities include Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Bogra, Comilla, Mymensingh and Rangpur. For more locations see List of settlements in Bangladesh.
|City||City population (2008 estimate)||Metro population (2008 estimate)|
|Rangpur||241,310 (2001)||251,699 (2001)|
The main religion in Bangladesh is Islam (85%). Many people also follow Hinduism (14%). Most Muslims are Sunni. Islam was made the state religion in the 1980s. Christians make up less than 1% of the population.
The earliest literary text in Bengali is the 8th century Charyapada. Medieval Bengali literature was often either religious or from other languages. The 19th century had poets such as Rabindranath Tagore, Michael Madhusudan Dutt and Kazi Nazrul Islam.
The musical tradition of Bangladesh is lyrics-based with little instruments. Folk music is often accompanied by the ektara, an instrument with only one string. Bangladeshi dance forms are from folk traditions.
Rice and fish are traditional favourite foods. Biryani is a favourite dish of Bangladeshis.
The sari is by far the most widely worn dress by Bangladeshi women. In urban areas some women wear western attire. Among men, western attire is more widely worn.
Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha have major festivals. Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of Gautama Buddha, and Christmas, called Bôŗodin (Great day), are both national holidays. The most important non-religious festival is Pohela Boishakh or Bengali New Year, the beginning of the Bengali calendar.
Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangladesh. Next is football (soccer). The national cricket team was in their first Cricket World Cup in 1999. In 2011, Bangladesh successfully co-hosted the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011 with India and Sri Lanka.
National symbols of Bangladesh
Magpie Robin, National bird Of Bangladesh
Royal Bengal Tiger, National animal Of Bangladesh
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), National fruit Of Bangladesh
Water lily, National flower Of Bangladesh
Banyan, National tree Of Bangladesh
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