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|Republic of the Union of Myanmar
ပြည်ထောင်စု သမ္မတ မြန်မာနိုင်ငံတော်
|Anthem: Kaba Ma Kyei
Till the End of the World
|Largest city||Yangon (Rangoon)|
|Recognised regional languages|
|Official scripts||Burmese script|
|Demonym||Burmese / Myanma|
|Government||Unitary presidential constitutional republic|
|Legislature||Assembly of the Union|
|-||Upper house||House of Nationalities|
|-||Lower house||House of Representatives|
|-||Pagan Dynasty||23 December 849|
|-||Toungoo Dynasty||16 October 1510|
|-||Konbaung Dynasty||29 February 1752|
(from United Kingdom)
|4 January 1948|
|-||Coup d'état||2 March 1962|
|-||New constitution||30 March 2011|
|-||Total||676,578 km2 (40th)
261,227 sq mi
|-||2010 estimate||60,280,000 (24th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|HDI (2012)|| 0.498
low · 149th
|Currency||Kyat (K) (
|Time zone||MST (UTC+06:30)|
|Drives on the||rightb|
|ISO 3166 code||MM|
|a.||Some governments recognise Yangon (Rangoon) as the national capital.|
|b.||Road infrastructure is still for driving on the left.|
Myanmar, officially called the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is the largest country in South East Asia that is not an island, partly considered as South Asian. It is bordered by China on the north, Laos on the east, Thailand on the southeast, Bangladesh on the west, and the India on the northwest, with the Andaman Sea to the south, and the Bay of Bengal to the southwest. There are over 2,000 kilometers (1,243 mi) of coast line. The country was ruled by a military junta led by General Ne Win from 1962 to 1988, and its political system today stays under the tight control of its military government. Since 1992, Myanmar has been ruled by Senior General Than Shwe.
National symbols of Myanmar
Origin and history of the name
In 1989, the military junta officially changed the English version of its name from Burma to Myanmar. It also made a new name in English for places in the country, such as its former capital city, from Rangoon to Yangon. The official name of the country in the Burmese language, Myanma did not change, however. The renaming was controversial, seen by some as linguistically bad. Accepting the name change in the English-speaking world has been slow, with many people still using the name Burma to refer to the country. Major news organizations like the BBC still call it Burma. Some question the military junta's authority to "officially" change the name in English in the first place. Aung San Suu Kyi, however, calls the country Myanmar now.
Myanmar had a strong kingdom in ancient times, but the nation was taken over by the British in the 1800s. It was occupied by the Empire of Japan in the 1940s. Myanmar became independent in 1948 as the Union of Burma, and had a democratic government at first. However, in 1962, a coup d'état brought the military into power, where it has been ever since. The founder of modern Myanmar, Aung San was assassinated months before independence. His daughter Aung San Suu Kyi was placed under house arrest many times for leading the democracy movement.
In 1991, the military junta agreed to democratic elections, which were won by the National League for Democracy, and should have made Aung San Suu Kyi the Prime Minister. However, the dictatorship ignored the results of the elections and continued ruling. In November 2005, the military government stated that the national capital would be moved from Yangon to a location near Pyinmana, which was renamed Naypyidaw in March 2006.
Since independence in 1948 and the assassination of Aung San Burma has had civil wars between its governments and minority ethnic groups like the Kachin, Karen, Shan and others. These conflicts are known as the Internal conflict in Burma.
|2006 Rank||City||1983 Census||2006 Estimate||State/Region|
|1.||Yangon (Rangoon)||2,513,023||4,572,948||Yangon Region|
|3.||Naypyidaw (Nay Pyi Taw) *||0||924,608||Naypyidaw Union Territory|
- "Asian Development Bank and Myanmar: Fact Sheet". Asian Development Bank. 30 April 2012. http://www.adb.org/Documents/Fact_Sheets/MYA.pdf. Retrieved 2012-11-20.
- "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2119rank.html?countryName=Burma&countryCode=bm®ionCode=eas&rank=24#bm. Retrieved 2013-07-06.
- "Burma (Myanmar)". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2011&ey=2013&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=55&pr1.y=18&c=518&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved April 2013.
- "2013 Human Development Report Statistics". Human Development Report 2013. United Nations Development Programme. 14 March 2013. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR2013_EN_Statistics.pdf. Retrieved 16 March 2013.
- "The World Factbook – Burma". cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bm.html. Retrieved 1 September 2012.