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November is the eleventh and penultimate (second-last) month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, coming between October and December. It has 30 days. Its name is from the Latin word novem, which meant "nine". It was the ninth month of the year before January and February were added to the Roman Calendar. November begins on the same day of the week as March every year and also February except in leap years.

November's flower is the Chrysanthemum. Its birthstone is the topaz. The meaning of the topaz is .

The Month

Early November sunset in Switzerland, where it is an Autumn month.

November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian calendar, after October and before December, which is the last month. November has 30 days. It was the ninth month in the old Roman calendar, which is where its name comes from. It kept its name when January and February were added to the beginning of the year, despite becoming the eleventh month. The ninth month is now September.

November begins on the same day of the week as March every year, and also begins on the same day as February in common years. It always ends on the same day of the week as August, as August 31 and November 30 are exactly 13 weeks (91 days) apart.

In the Northern Hemisphere, November is an Autumn (Fall) month, and the further north in the hemisphere, the more likely it is to get colder as December approaches. In the Southern Hemisphere it is a Spring month. In each hemisphere, it is the seasonal equivalent of May in the other.

Several observances around the beginning of the month are believed to be related, linked to the old Celtic celebration of Samhain on November 1. These events include Halloween (October 31), Day of the Dead in Mexico (October 31 to November 2), All Saints Day (November 1) and All Souls Day (November 2).

In several mainly Christian countries, it is month in which people who died in war are commonly remembered, mainly related to the end of World War I on November 11, 1918. Near the end of the month Advent, the period leading up to Christmas, begins.

The astrological signs for November are Scorpio (October 24 to November 22) and Sagittarius (November 23 to December 21). The birth flower is the chrysanthemum and the birth stone is the topaz.

Events in November

Fixed Events

Guy Fawkes Night celebration on November 5 in the UK.
Poppies symbolise Remembrance Day in the UK on November 11.
The Flag of Scotland, with the cross of Saint Andrew, whose feast day is November 30.

Moveable Events

Painting showing celebration of Thanksgiving Day, celebrated in the US on the fourth Thursday in November.

Selection of Historical Events

Guy Fawkes is arrested for his part in the Gunpowder Plot on November 5, 1605.
The Berlin Wall came down on November 9, 1989.
The tomb of Tutankhamun, which Howard Carter entered on November 26, 1922.

Months of the Year

January | February | March | April | May | June | July | August | September | October | November | December