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Republic of Chad

République du Tchad
جمهورية تشاد
Ǧumhūriyyat Tšād
Flag of Chad
Location of Chad
and largest city
12°06′N 16°02′E / 12.100°N 16.033°E / 12.100; 16.033
Official languagesFrench
Ethnic groups
Sara 27.7%
Arab 12.3%
Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%
Kanem-Bornou 9%
Ouaddai 8.7%
Hadjarai 6.7%
Tandjile 6.5%
Gorane 6.3%
Fitri-Batha 4.7%
other 6.4%
unknown 0.3%
GovernmentPresidential republic
• President
Mahamat Idriss Déby[1]
Albert Pahimi Padacké
• from France
August 11, 1960
• Total
1,284,000 km2 (496,000 sq mi) (21st)
• Water (%)
• 2009 estimate
10,329,208[2] (74th)
• 1993 census
• Density
8.0/km2 (20.7/sq mi) (212th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$18.261 billion[3] (123rd)
• Per capita
$1,743[3] (150th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$9.535 billion[3] (130th)
• Per capita
$910[3] (151st)
HDI (2011)Increase 0.328
low · 183rd
CurrencyCentral African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (WAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (Not observed)
Driving sideright
Calling code235
ISO 3166 codeTD

Chad (French: Tchad; Arabic: تشاد, officially called the Republic of Chad), is a landlocked country in Central Africa. The capital is N'Djamena.

It was a French colony until 1960.[2] It suffers from poverty, illness, drought, and armed conflicts. In 2011, the population of Chad was 11,525,000.[4]

Arabic and French are the official languages. Islam and Christianity are the most widely practiced religions.

Chad has one of the highest levels of hunger in the world. Food insecurity is common in the country. 80% live in total poverty on less than a dollar a day, and 90% are unemployed in Chad. Chad has a low life expectancy. Life expectancy is 54 years old in Chad.

Chad is home to 134 kinds of mammals, 141 bird species, 52 kinds of reptiles, 30 amphibians and 130 kinds of fish. Many animals such as elephants, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses, warthogs, giraffes, antelopes, lions, leopards, and cheetahs live in Chad.


View of Chari River

Chad is the world's 21st-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Peru and slightly larger than South Africa.[5][6] To the north is Libya, to the south is the Central African Republic, to the east is Sudan, and to the west are Cameroon, Nigeria, and Niger.

The country's capital is 1,060 kilometres (660 mi) from the nearest seaport Douala, Cameroon.[7][8] Due to this distance from the sea and the country's largely desert climate, Chad is sometimes called the "Dead Heart of Africa".[9]

Lake Chad is the largest wetland in Chad and the second largest in Africa. Lake Chad was 330,000 square kilometres (130,000 sq mi) 7000 years ago. Now it is 17,806 square kilometres (6,875 sq mi). Chad's highest peak is the Emi Koussi in the Sahara.

The region's tall grasses and large amount of marshes make it good for birds, reptiles, and large mammals. Chad's major rivers are the Chari and Logone.


Since 2002, the Republic of Chad has been divided into regions. It was previously divided into prefectures, and then departments.

Below is a list of the 23 regions as of 2012. <section begin=table />

No. Region Pop.
Capital Departments
1 Batha 488,458 Ati Batha Est, Batha Ouest, Fitri
22 Chari-Baguirmi 578,425 Massenya Baguirmi, Chari, Loug Chari
23 Hadjer-Lamis 566,858 Massakory Dababa, Dagana , Haraze Al Biar
5 Wadi Fira 508,383 Biltine Biltine, Dar Tama, Kobé
2 Bahr el Gazel 257,267 Moussoro Barh El Gazel Nord, Barh El Gazel Sud
3 Borkou 93,584 Faya-Largeau Borkou, Borkou Yala
8 Ennedi-Est 107,302 Am-Djarass Am-Djarass, Wadi Hawar
12 Ennedi-Ouest 60,617 Fada Fada, Mourtcha
9 Guéra 538,359 Mongo Abtouyour, Barh Signaka, Guéra, Mangalmé
13 Kanem 333,387 Mao Kanem, Nord Kanem, Wadi Bissam
14 Lac 433,790 Bol Mamdi, Wayi
11 Logone Occidental 689,044 Moundou Dodjé, Guéni, Lac Wey, Ngourkosso
7 Logone Oriental 779,339 Doba La Nya, La Nya Pendé, La Pendé, Kouh-Est, Kouh-Ouest, Monts de Lam
15 Mandoul 628,065 Koumra Barh Sara, Mandoul Occidental, Mandoul Oriental
6 Mayo-Kebbi Est 774,782 Bongor Kabbia, Mayo-Boneye, Mayo-Lémié, Mont d'Illi
10 Mayo-Kebbi Ouest 564,470 Pala Lac Léré, Mayo-Dallah
19 Moyen-Chari 588,008 Sarh Barh Kôh, Grande Sido, Lac Iro
4 Ouaddaï 721,166 Abéché Abdi, Assoungha, Ouara
17 Salamat 302,301 Am Timan Aboudeïa, Barh Azoum, Haraze-Mangueigne
18 Sila 387,461 Goz Beïda Djourf Al Ahmar, Kimiti
20 Tandjilé 661,906 Laï Tandjilé Est, Tandjilé Ouest
21 Tibesti 25,483 Bardaï Tibesti Est, Tibesti Ouest
16 N'Djamena (capital) 951,418 N'Djamena 10 dawāʾir or arrondissements

Administrative regions of Chad since 2012

<section end=table />ad since 2012


The largest cities in Chad are:

  1. N'Djamena - 704,200
  2. Moundou - 136,900
  3. Sarh - 100,100
  4. Abéché - 72,500
  5. Kélo - 41,500
  6. Koumra - 35,400
  7. Pala - 34,600
  8. Am Timan - 28,200
  9. Bongor - 27,100
  10. Mongo - 27,100


Chad's official languages are Arabic and French, but over 100 languages and dialects are spoken. Due to the important role of Arab traders and merchants, Chadian Arabic has become a lingua franca, a language for all to use.


Attending primary school is required in Chad, though only about 50% of children attend school.[10] Adult literacy is only 35%.[10]

The University of N'Djamena provides higher education.


  1. "President Idriss Déby of Chad, in Power Since 1990, Wins 5th Term". New York Times. 21 April 2016. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Chad". The World Factbook. Retrieved January 28, 2010. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Chad". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2011-04-21. 
  4. Collins School World Atlas (Third ed.). Collins. 2013. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-00-748441-6 . 
  5. "Chad", The World Factbook.
  6. "Rank Order – Area"
  7. "Chad",Encyclopædia Britannica.
  8. "Chad". United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
  9. D. Botha, "S.H. Frankel"
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Statistics Chad". UNICEF. 24 December 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2016. 

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