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Republic of Niger
République du Niger (in French)
Jamhuriyar Nijar (in Hausa)
and largest city
|Hausa, Fulfulde, Gulmancema, Kanuri, Zarma, Tamasheq|
|Demonym(s)||Nigerien (// or //)|
|3 August 1960|
|1,267,000 km2 (489,000 sq mi) (22nd)|
• Water (%)
• July 2011 estimate
• 2001 census
|12.1/km2 (31.3/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|$11.783 billion (140th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|$6.286 billion (143rd)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2011)|| 0.295|
low · 186th
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (WAT)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC+1 (not observed)|
|ISO 3166 code||NE|
Niger is a country in western Africa. The capital is Niamey, and the official language is French. It is surrounded by Algeria and Libya to the north, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, and Burkina Faso and Mali to the west. Niger is landlocked, meaning it has no coastline. Niger gets its name from the Niger River, whose name possibly comes from the Berber word "River of Rivers".
The Mali Empire and the Songhai Empire both had land in what is now Niger. Later France controlled the land that is now Niger. Niger has a population, or the number of people living in an area, of 15,306,252 and an area of 1,267,000 square kilometres. Much of Niger is desert.
After a military coup in 2010, Niger is now a democratic, multi-party state. Most of the people live in rural areas, and have little access to advanced education.
Niger’s main exports are uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas and onions. Millet and sorghum are grown in the south, as well as cassava and sugarcane. Rice is grown in the Niger River valley. Peanuts are the most important cash crop. Other important crops are cotton and pulses.
Niger is on the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Niger's area is 1,267,000 square kilometres (489,191 sq mi) of which 300 square kilometres (116 sq mi) is water. It is the world's twenty-second largest country. Niger borders seven countries. The longest border is with Nigeria to the south.
This table shows cities with a population over 10,000, according to 2001 census.
|Niamey||Niamey Capital District||707,951|
Niger's subtropical climate is mainly very hot and dry. Much of it is covered by desert. In the extreme south there is a tropical climate on the edges of the Niger River basin. The land is mostly desert plains and sand dunes. There is flat to rolling savanna in the south and hills in the north.
There are several ethnic groups in Niger:
- Hausa 53.1%
- Zarma/Songhai 21.2%
- Tuareg 11%
- Fulani (Peuhl) 6.5%
- Kanuri 5.9%
- Gurma 0.8%
- Arab 0.4%
- Tubu 0.4%
- other/unavailable 0.9%
The literacy rate (the amount of the adult population who can read or write) of Niger is among the lowest in the world. In 2005 it was estimated to be only 28.7% (42.9% male and 15.1% female). Primary education in Niger is required for six years. The primary school enrollment and attendance rates are low, particularly for girls. Children are often made to work rather than attend school. This is particularly true during planting or harvest periods.
- "Merriam-Webster Dictionary". http://www.merriam-webster.com/audio.php?file=ggnig01v&word=Nigerien&text=\%3Cspan%20class%3D%22unicode%22%3E%CB%8C%3C%2Fspan%3En%C4%AB-%3Cspan%20class%3D%22unicode%22%3E%CB%8C%3C%2Fspan%3Ejir-%C4%93-%3Cspan%20class%3D%22unicode%22%3E%CB%88%3C%2Fspan%3Een%2C%20n%C4%93-%3Cspan%20class%3D%22unicode%22%3E%CB%88%3C%2Fspan%3Ezher-%C4%93-%C9%99n\.
- "Niger - Definition of Niger in English by Oxford Dictionaries". https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/Niger.
- INS Niger (in French)
- "Niger". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=692&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=65&pr.y=4. Retrieved 21 April 2011.
- Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
- Hunwick, John O. (2003). Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613 and other contemporary documents. Leiden: Brill. p. 275 Fn 22. .
- Population figures from citypopulation.de, citing (2001) Institut National de la Statistique du Niger.
- "Africa :: Niger — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ng.html.
- "Niger". 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.