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People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

الجمهورية الجزائرية الديمقراطية الشعبية (Arabic)
République algérienne démocratique et populaire  (French)
Flag of Algeria
Motto: 
Anthem: 
Location of  Algeria  (dark green)
Location of  Algeria  (dark green)
Capital
and largest city
Algiers
36°42′N 3°13′E / 36.700°N 3.217°E / 36.700; 3.217
Official languagesArabicBerber
Algerian Arabic (Darja) (lingua franca)
French (administration, business and education)[3]
Ethnic groups
Religion
Demonym(s)Algerian
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Abdelmadjid Tebboune
Aymen Benabderrahmane
Salah Goudjil
Slimane Chenine
LegislatureParliament
Council of the Nation
People's National Assembly
Formation
960
1014
1235
1515
5 July 1830
• Independence from France
5 July 1962
Area
• Total
2,381,741 km2 (919,595 sq mi) (10th)
• Water (%)
1.1
Population
• 2021 estimate
44,700,000[5] (32nd)
• Density
17.7/km2 (45.8/sq mi) (168)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $684.649 billion[6] (35th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,765[6] (82nd)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $183.687 billion[6] (53rd)
• Per capita
Increase $4,229[6] (109th)
Gini (2011)27.6[7][8]
low
HDI (2019)Decrease 0.748[9]
high · 91st
CurrencyDinar (DZD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+213
ISO 3166 codeDZ
Internet TLD.dz
الجزائر.
Algeria on a world map

Algeria (Listeni/ælˈɪəriə/ or /ɔːl-/), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a former French colony and the largest country in Africa. It is part of the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa. Algiers is the capital. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Tunisia in the northeast, Libya in the east, Niger in the southeast, Mauritania and Mali in the southwest, Western Sahara in the west and Morocco in the northwest. It is also the largest country in the Arab world.

History

People have lived in Algeria for thousands of years, which can be seen in the cave paintings at Tassili National Park that date to around 7000BC. By 600 BC, Phoenicians were in Hippo Regius (now called Annaba), Rusicade (now Skikda), and Tipasa in the central coastal part of the country. The Romans would annex (take over) the region by the conclusion of the Punic Wars in 146BC, with what is now modern day Algeria staying in Roman hands till the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century and the region being taken over by the Germanic Vandals.

Algeria would become part of the islamic world when the first Muslim Arabs came to Algeria in the mid-7th century, resulting in many people converting to the new religion of islam. In the 11th century, the Arab tribes of Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym were living between Tunisia and eastern Algeria (Constantois). The famous mathematician, Fibonacci (1170—1250) lived in Algeria as a teenager. This is where he learned the Hindu–Arabic numeral system. Algeria was made part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Enslavement of black people was practiced there as it was throughout the empire.[10]

In the 1500s and 1700s, the Spanish Empire ruled a lot of Algeria. France colonized Algeria starting in 1830. In 1954, the National Liberation Front (Front de Libération Nationale or FLN) wanted freedom from France. They fought a war. It became independent from France in July 5, 1962.

In 1963 Ahmed Ben Bella became the first President of Algeria.

The Algerian Civil War started in 1991. It ended in 2002. the government stopped the state of emergency on 24 February 2011.

Geography

A large part of southern Algeria is the Sahara Desert. The Aures and Nememcha mountain ranges are in the north. The highest point is Mount Tahat (3,003 m).

Languages

The official languages of the country are Arabic as a first language and Berber as a second language. Many people speak French, too.

Population

Algeria's population is about 45 million people. There are over 40 cities with more than 100,000 people.

Politics

The Parliament of Algeria is made up of two chambers:[11]

Divisions

There are 48 provinces (since 1983) in Algeria, they are:


1 Adrar
2 Chlef
3 Laghouat
4 Oum el Bouaghi
5 Batna
6 Bejaia
7 Biskra
8 Bechar
9 Blida
10 Bouira
11 Tamanghasset
12 Tebessa

13 Tlemcen
14 Tiaret
15 Tizi Ouzou
16 Algiers
17 Djelfa
18 Jijel
19 Setif
20 Saïda
21 Skikda
22 Sidi Bel Abbes
23 Annaba
24 Guelma

25 Constantine
26 Medea
27 Mostaganem
28 M'Sila
29 Mascara
30 Ouargla
31 Oran
32 El Bayadh
33 Illizi
34 Bordj Bou Arréridj
35 Boumerdès
36 El Tarf

37 Tindouf
38 Tissemsilt
39 El Oued
40 Khenchela
41 Souk Ahras
42 Tipasa
43 Mila
44 Ain Defla
45 Naama
46 Ain Temouchent
47 Ghardaia
48 Relizane

UNESCO World Heritage Sites

There are several UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Algeria[12] including Al Qal'a of Beni Hammad, the first capital of the Hammadid empire; Tipasa, a Phoenician and later Roman town; and Djémila and Timgad, both Roman ruins; M'Zab Valley, a limestone valley containing a large urbanized oasis; also the Casbah of Algiers is an important citadel. The only natural World Heritage Sites is the Tassili n'Ajjer, a mountain range.

References

  1. "Constitution of Algeria, Art. 11". El-mouradia.dz. language: France and Arabic (government language); people of Algeria speak Arabic and Berber. http://www.el-mouradia.dz/arabe/symbole/textes/constitution96.htm. 
  2. "Constitution of Algeria; Art. 11". Apn-dz.org. 28 November 1996. http://www.apn-dz.org/apn/english/constitution96/titre_01.htm. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "The World Factbook – Algeria". Central Intelligence Agency. 4 December 2013. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html. 
  4. "Central Intelligence Agency". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 8 February 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ag.html. 
  5. "Démographie" (in fr). 18 May 2020. http://www.ons.dz/IMG/pdf/demographie2019_bis.pdf. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=30&pr.y=9&sy=2019&ey=2022&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=612&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=. 
  7. "Distribution of Family Income – Gini Index". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2172.html. 
  8. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?locations=DZ. 
  9. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5 . http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2020.pdf. Retrieved 16 December 2020. 
  10. Loualich, Fatiha (2013-01-01). "The Emancipated Slaves Faced with the Jurisdiction of Algiers in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries" (in en). Oriente Moderno 93 (2): 547–560. doi:10.1163/22138617-12340032 . ISSN 2213-8617 . https://brill.com/view/journals/ormo/93/2/article-p547_10.xml. 
  11. "Embassy of Algeria in Iran - Political Institution - The National People's Assembly". algeriaemb.ir. http://www.algeriaemb.ir/pages.php?p=19. Retrieved 2015-08-01. 
  12. UNESCO. "UNESCO World Heritage Centre". http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/dz. Retrieved 25 September 2011. 

Notes

  1. The CIA World Factbook states that about 15% of Algerians, a minority, identify as Berber even though many Algerians have Berber origins. The Factbook explains that of the approximately 15% who identify as Berber, most live in the Kabylia region, more closely identify with Berber heritage instead of Arab heritage, and are Muslim.

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