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Black people is a term that is used for a racial group of people with a dark skin color. The meaning of the word is mainly used for people of Sub-Saharan African descent, but also includes certain groups in Oceania and Southeast Asia.[note 1]
Black people in the Americas
Black people in the United States are called African Americans. Before 1860, many Africans were brought to the United States in the slave trade. Later, other Africans came out of their free will. Discrimination against African Americans is a big problem. Black Lives Matter is a movement fighting against racism.
In 2010, the cities with the largest numbers of African Americans were Detroit (670,000 black inhabitants) and Memphis (607,000 black inhabitants). In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American president of the United States.
Some blacks in the United States are Hispanic, Caribbean or African because of immigration. Most recent African immigrants are refugees from East Africa such as Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia etc. or high-skilled immigrants from Nigeria, Kenya, Ghana, and South Africa. In the 2020 census, Black people will be asked about their exact origins.
White men who were Spanish colonizers shipped African slaves to Latin American countries such as Colombia, Brazil, Mexico, Honduras, El Salvador, Venezuela, Cuba, Guatemala, Panama, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic because of the decline of Native Americans from smallpox and disease. Native Americans were initially slaves but white Europeans turned to Africans because of the mass decline of the Native American population. Many Mestizos and Hispanics have African DNA from the slave trade because of the race mixing with white people, African slaves and Native Americans. Many African ex-slaves in Latin America are mixed race and have Native American and Spanish ancestry. Racial whitening was a policy in Brazil to turn African slaves white in the future and to improve the uncivilized, undesirable African race. "Mestizaje" in Latin America by the Spanish was similar to the racial whitening that happened in Brazil.
Black slaves were shipped to various Caribbean countries such as Jamaica, Haiti, The Bahamas, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago. Europeans, mostly the British, the Dutch and the French brought Africans to the Caribbean to work on crops like coffee, sugar, cocoa, cotton and indigo.
There were 1.2 million Black people living in Canada in 2016.
Black people in other countries
During apartheid people in South Africa were classified into four main races: Black, White, Asian (mostly Indian) and Coloured. Under apartheid black people were treated the most badly. Coloured people were treated slightly less badly. In South Africa, Chinese people who lived there during apartheid are classed as black. About 80% of people in South Africa are Black African. The income of the average white South African household is six times as much as that of the average Black South African household.
India and Pakistan
Black people in the United Kingdom are defined by terms used by the Office for National Statistics. They make up 3.3% of the people in the UK. Of course, these terms may or may not be used in everyday life.
- Other isolated groups in Southeast Asia sometimes grouped as black include the Austronesians and Papuans, the Andamanese islanders, the Semang people of the Malay peninsula, the Aeta people of Luzon and some other small populations of indigenous peoples.
- black. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved April 13, 2007, from Dictionary.com website
- "47. Relatives Western Asia". Andaman.org. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/chapter47/text47.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-10.
- "S Africa Chinese 'become black'". 18 June 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7461099.stm.
- "Bloomberg - Are you a robot?". https://www.bloomberg.com/tosv2.html?vid=&uuid=80657c30-2e40-11e9-8674-e3840914a725&url=L25ld3MvMjAxMi0xMC0zMC9zb3V0aC1hZnJpY2Etcy1yYWNpYWwtaW5jb21lLWluZXF1YWxpdHktcGVyc2lzdHMtY2Vuc3VzLXNob3dzLmh0bWw=.
- "Ethnicity and National Identity in England and Wales - Office for National Statistics". https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/culturalidentity/ethnicity/articles/ethnicityandnationalidentityinenglandandwales/2012-12-11.