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Latin America is a region of the Americas. People do not completely agree which countries are in Latin America, but normally, it is the parts where Spanish and Portuguese are spoken (South America, Central America, and Mexico). Sometimes the Caribbean Islands are also inclued. Other people call all American countries where people speak Spanish, Portuguese, and French Latin America.
The words "Latin America" come from the use of languages that came from Latin. The Spanish, Portuguese, and French languages, spoken by many people in Latin America, are Romance languages. Romance languages are derived from Latin. Not all people in Latin America speak Romance languages, some Latin American people speak Native American languages.
Most Latin Americans are Roman Catholic.
The population of Latin America comprises various ethnic groups and races, making this continent the most diverse in the world today. The majority of Latin Americans are Mestizo (European-Native American); while some are dominated by Native Americans, others are dominated by Europeans; and some others are Mulatto, Black, Zambo, and Asian. European/Whites are the largest single ethnic group, they and people of part-European makeup about as much as 80% of the Latin American population, possibly even more.
- Native American. The Native population in Latin America, came during the Lithic stage. They number in more than sixty million (by some experts). They makeup the majority only in Bolivia and Guatemala, and even in Peru. In Ecuador the Indeginous population is a large minority of about 1/4 of the population. Mexico's pure to almost pure Native American population is nearly 30% (with 9.8% to 15% being of pure blood), and is also one of the largest Amerindian population in the Americas in terms of abosulote numbers. Most of the remaining countries have Native American minorities.
- European. In the very late 1400s and the very early 1500s, large numbers of Iberian colonists came to what is now Latin America. Today, most White Latin Americans are of Spanish and Portuguese origin. The Iberians brought their language, religion, and culture to Latin America. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, and Chile contains the largest numbers of Whites in Latin America. Whites makeup the majorities of Argentina, Costa Rica, Chile, Uruguay, and probably Puerto Rico (though this is unclear, due to the fact most Puerto Ricans tend to have some sort of Admixture with African or Indeginous), and depending on sources, sometimes even Cuba; and, also Whites makeup almost half of the population in Brazil. The rest of the remaining countries have a White minority (small or large).
- African. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the early 1500s onward, the majority of whom went to the Caribbean and Brazil. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil, Dominican Republic is the only country in Latin America with a Black majority of about 80-90%. Sagnificant populations include Cuba (35%), Puerto Rico (23%), Panama and Colombia (both having equivalent from 20-24%), and Venezuela (5-34%). The remaining countries have a Black minority (small or large), Nicaragua has the largest Black population of Central America with about 9% of Nicaraguans being Black. Most of the Black African Latin Americans are primarily of West and Central African descent.
- Asian. People of Asian descent number several millions in Latin America. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese and Chinese heritage, and they mostly reside in Peru and Brazil. There is also a growing Chinese population in Panama, as well as Costa Rica (though, Chinese Costa Ricans are a large minority). In the Dominican Republic, there is a place where large numbers of Japanese people came; most Japanese Dominicans reside in towns such as Bonao and Santo Domingo (though in the Capital's mostly comprised with Chinese people). Asian Latin Americans are also found anywhere in the Caribbean and other Latin American countries.
- Arab or Middle Easterns. Arabs in Latin America are also many, but they are mostly found among the Hispanic-Caribbean regions. In Cuba and Puerto Rico, the Arab population are actually in-blood lines of the Canarians and Southern Spaniards that colonized them. In the Dominican Republic, the Arabs arrived sometime between the 19th and 20th century; they makeup about 5% of Dominicans (most are Morracians, Lebanese and East Indians). Arabs are also many in Peru and Venezuela.
- NOTE: Most of these ethnic groups can be found anywhere in Latin America; but since most Latin Americans are of mixed-race, many of these ethnic groups do not reach 100%.
The bottom chart is an accurate estimate, since all of these countries were tested for DNA genetics among the local people who have more than 3 generations in their home country of origin since the year 2000. So regardless of age, anyone who was born before or after will be tested, but will only count with their ancestors for 3 generations before the year 2000.
- Population estimates from DNA genetics of Latin American Countries:
Note: Puerto Rico is a territory of the United States.
Spanish and Portuguese are the dominant languages of Latin America. Portuguese is only spoken in Brazil. Spanish is the official language of the grand majority of Latin America mainland, as well as in Cuba, Puerto Rico (along with English), and the Dominican Republic.
Native American languages are widely spoken in Peru, Guatemala, Bolivia, Paraguay and Mexico, and to some extend, in Panama, Ecuador, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Venezuela, and Argentina amongst other countries.
African languages are also spoken by few in Latin America. The west African Yoruba language (known as Lucumi) is spoken among the people of predominant Yoruba ancestry; it is spoken in Cuba where it is a ritual language used by the Santeria prayers.
In several nations, Creole languages are also spoken, especially in the Caribbean. Palenquero is the Spanish-based Creole language spoken in Colombia by approximately lass than 3,000 people, it is Spanish but with a lot of African influences, and alittle Portuguese influences as well. Creole languages have also been espablished elsewhere in the mainland of Latin America, but they all have the same roots with the blending of Spanish with either African or Indeginous languages, or sometimes even both. >> See Cuban Creole Oriental
Poverty and Inequality
Poverty continues to be one of the biggest challenges for Latin American countries. According to estimates, Latin America is the most unequal regions of the world.
According to a Country Studies Institute the poorest countries in the region (in 2011) were: Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Bolivia and Honduras. Undernourishment affects 72% of Haitians, 60% of Dominicans, 47% of Nicaraguans and Bolivians, and 27% of Hondurans.
- Colburn, Forrest D (2002). Latin America at the End of Politics. Princeton University Press. . http://books.google.com/books?id=qBCVB3mxCK8C&dq=%22latin+america+at+the+end+of+politics%22&pg=PP1&ots=Hsc6JIiWF0&sig=3-bdK4pc-bXg0abCFag4agEPwo8&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com/search%3Fhl%3Den%26q%3D%2522Latin%2BAmerica%2Bat%2Bthe%2BEnd%2Bof%2BPolitics%2522&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail#PPA10,M1.
- Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI" (in Spanish) (PDF). Convergencia (Mexico: Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Centro de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades) 38: 185–232; table on p. 218. . http://convergencia.uaemex.mx/rev38/38pdf/LIZCANO.pdf.
- The Washington Post Interactive Map of Politics in Latin America
- Andean Community official webpage
- Council on Hemispheric Affairs
- Latin American Network Information Center
- Latin America Working Group
- Washington Office on Latin America
- Politics in Latin America
- Infolatam. Information and analysis of Latin America[[Category:South America