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South America is attached to Central America at the boundary of Panama. Geographically all of Panama – including the part east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is usually included in North America alone, among the countries of Central America.
South America stretches from the Caribbean Sea almost to Antarctica. It borders the Atlantic on the east, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. South America can be divided into four parts. The Caribbean Republics include Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. The Andean Republics include Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, Colombia and Peru. The River Plate Republics have Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina. Brazil, the largest, is almost half of South America.
The soil in Argentina's Pampas is among the best in the world. Brazil's soil is very good for growing coffee. A great number of minerals have been found. Few, however, have been mined. Among those that were mined are iron, manganese, gold, and gemstones. The tropical forests are rich in valuable trees, like mahogany, ebony, and rubber. Oil is also a resource in some places.
The most popular attractions are:
- Machu Picchu, a historic site in Peru
- The Iguazu Falls, a waterfall on the border between Argentina and Brazil
- The Angel Falls, the world's tallest waterfall, in Venezuela
- Rio de Janeiro and its carnival in Brazil
- The Patagonia region in Argentina and Chile
- The Christ Redeemer in Brazil
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- Cohen, Saul Bernard. 2003. "North and Middle America" (Ch. 5). Geopolitics of the World System (ISBN 0847699072)
- "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
- "The Atlas of Canada - North America". atlas.nrcan.gc.ca. http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/reference/international/north_america/referencemap_image_view. Retrieved 6 April 2010.
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- "Panama". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia
- Geography: Panama CIA World Factbook 2008.