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|Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil (Portuguese)
|Motto: "Ordem e Progresso"
"Order and Progress"
|Anthem: Hino Nacional Brasileiro
"Brazilian National Anthem"
Selo Nacional do Brasil
|Largest city||São Paulo|
|Ethnic groups (2010)||47.73% White
43.13% Brown (Multiracial)
|Government||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|-||President||Dilma Rousseff (PT)|
|-||Vice President||Michel Temer (PMDB)|
|-||President of the Chamber of Deputies||Marco Maia (PT)|
|-||President of the Senate||José Sarney (PMDB)|
|-||Chief Justice||Cezar Peluso|
|-||Upper house||Federal Senate|
|-||Lower house||Chamber of Deputies|
|Independence from Portugal|
|-||Declared||7 September 1822|
|-||Recognized||29 August 1825|
|-||Republic||15 November 1889|
|-||Current constitution||5 October 1988|
|-||Total||8,514,877 km2 (5th)
3,287,597 sq mi
|-||2013 census||201,032,714  (5th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2010 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2010 estimate|
high · 84th
|Currency||Real (R$) (
|Time zone||BRT (UTC-2 to -4)|
|-||Summer (DST)||BRST (UTC-2 to -4)|
|Date format||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
|Drives on the||right|
Brazil (officially called Federative Republic of Brazil; how to say: IPA: [bɾɐˈziw]) is a country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country. The country has about 201 million people. The capital of Brazil is Brasília.
The first people to come to Brazil came around 9,000 B.C. That group of people is often called the South American Indians. They probably came from North America. Some of them were hunters and gatherers, but others were farmers.
Pedro Álvares Cabral was the first European to see Brazil. He saw it in 1500. He was from Portugal and the Portuguese government claimed Brazil. Soon, explorers explored the whole coastline of Brazil and colonies were set up. In the late 1500s and early 1600s the Dutch and the French would sometimes try to take land in Brazil. Brazilians started moving inland farther than the Treaty of Tordesillas said they could. This caused some fights with the Spaniards and native people in the area.
In 1822, Brazil claimed to be its own country and not a part of Portugal anymore. Soon there was civil war. But the emperor Pedro II improved the economy, and in 1888, he freed the slaves. In 1889, there was a military coup and Pedro II had to leave the country.
In 1889, Brazil became a republic. It was not very democratic, because the only people who could vote where people who owned land. There were some uprisings in the 1920s because some people thought the government was unfairly helping coffee growers. Brazil joined the Allies during World War II.
During the 1960s, the leader Castelo Branco made the government like a dictatorship. Since then, the country has become more democratic, but some people feel that there are still big problems in health and education. Brazil will be hosting the 2016 olympics.
Brazil has the world's largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest. It makes up 40% of the country's land area. Brazil also has other types of land, including a type of savanna called cerrado, and a dry plant region named caatinga.
The most important cities are Brasília (the capital), Belém, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Florianópolis, Fortaleza, Goiânia, Manaus, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, São Paulo (the biggest city) and Vitória. Other cities are at List of largest cities in Brazil.
Brazil is divided into 26 states plus the Federal District in five regions (north, south, northeast, southeast and centre-west):
- North: Acre, Amazonas, Rondônia, Roraima, Pará, Amapá, Tocantins
- Northeast: Maranhão, Pernambuco, Ceará, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas, Sergipe, Bahia
- Centre-West: Goiás, Mato grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Distrito Federal/ Federal District
- Southeast: São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais
- South: Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul
Brazil is the largest country in South America and the largest economy in Latin America. Its people include people of Portuguese or other European descent, African descent, and native Amerindians, as well as many people of mixed origins. Brazil also has the biggest number of Japanese descendents outside Japan.
People from Brazil are called Brazilians (brasileiros in Brazilian Portuguese language).
- "Demographics". Brazilian Government. 2011. http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/brazil/brazil-in-numbers/demographics. Retrieved 2011-10-08. (English)
- Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Cor ou raça
- "IBGE | Sala de imprensa | notícias | IBGE releases the population estimates of the municipalities in 2012". Saladeimprensa.ibge.gov.br. http://saladeimprensa.ibge.gov.br/en/noticias?view=noticia&id=1&busca=1&idnoticia=2204. Retrieved 2013-06-04.
- "Brazil". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2008&ey=2011&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=223&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=25&pr.y=4. Retrieved 2011-04-21.
- Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Rendimento
- UNDP Human Development Report 2011. "Table 1: Human development index 2011 and its components" (PDF). UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-04.
- "Hora Legal Brasileira". Observatório Nacional. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20110722173247/http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-21.
- "Brazil". Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/106094. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "WordNet Search - 3.0". wordnetweb.princeton.edu. 2011 [last update]. http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=brazilian. Retrieved 3 February 2011.