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Portuguese Republic

República Portuguesa
Flag of Portugal
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Portugal  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
Official languages Portuguese
Ethnic groups
96.87% Portuguese and 3.13% other ethnicities (Cape Verdeans, Brazilians, Ukrainians, Goans, Angolans, etc.)
Demonym(s) Portuguese
Government Unitary parliamentary republic
• President
Aníbal Cavaco Silva (PSD)
Pedro Passos Coelho (PSD)
Assunção Esteves (PSD)
Conventional date for Independence is 1139
• Founding
24 June 1128
• Kingdom
25 July 1139
5 October 1143
23 May 1179
1 December 1640
13 February 1668
• Republic
5 October 1910
• Democracy
25 April 1974
• Total
92,090 km2 (35,560 sq mi) (110th)
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
10,647,763[1] (77th)
• 2011 census
• Density
115/km2 (297.8/sq mi) (96th)

Portugal is a country in Southern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east.

Three groups of islands in the Atlantic Ocean are also part of Portugal: the Azores (Açores), Madeira and the Savage Isles (Ilhas Selvagens). The Savage Isles are a small group of islands with nobody on them, controlled by Madeira. Portugal claims that Olivença is also part of its territory, but actually it is controlled by Spain.


Portugal became its own kingdom in 1139 but was not officially recognized until 1143. The border with Spain has been almost the same since the 13th century. Fishing and trade with other countries are important here.

Portugal was important in world exploration for two reasons. Henry the Navigator, a prince from Portugal, was very interested in exploration. Inventions in navigation led to a bigger knowledge of geography.

This world exploration began the Portuguese Empire. Portugal was a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries. However, it lost a lot of money soon after this. The city of Lisbon was destroyed in an earthquake in 1755. The country was occupied during the Napoleonic Wars. It lost its largest colony, Brazil, in 1822.

In 1910, Portugal became a Republic, and in 1926, a military group took control of the country from the Portuguese 1st Republic. This began a time of rule by fascist governments that lasted until 1974. That year, a peaceful left-wing army coup, called the Carnation Revolution, happened. The coup changed how the country was run.

The next year, Portugal allowed its colonies in Africa to be on their own: Mozambique, Angola, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde and São Tomé and Príncipe.

East Timor in Asia declared itself independent from Portugal on 28 November 1975, and was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces nine days later.

Portugal went into the European Union in 1986. Another Asian colony, Macau, became part of China again in December 1999.


The main language of Portugal is Portuguese.

Some famous Portuguese people are D. Afonso Henriques, Henry the Navigator, Bartolomeu Dias, Vasco da Gama, Pedro Álvares Cabral, Ferdinand Magellan, Luís de Camões, Fernando Pessoa, Amália Rodrigues, Álvaro Siza Vieira, Eduardo Souto de Moura.

Luís de Camões wrote the national poem of Portugal. It is called Os Lusíadas and was written in 1572.[7]

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