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Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
|Capital||Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (legislative)|
Colombo (executive and judicial)
|Ethnic groups |
11.2% Sri Lankan Tamils
9.2% Sri Lankan Moors
4.2% Indian Tamils
0.5% Others (incl. Burghers, Malays, Veddas, Chinese, Indians)
|70.2% Buddhism (official) |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Mahinda Yapa Abeywardena|
from the United Kingdom
|4 February 1948|
|22 May 1972|
|7 September 1978|
|65,610 km2 (25,330 sq mi) (120th)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2012 census
|327/km2 (846.9/sq mi) (43rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|$321.856 billion (58th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|$92.111 billion (65th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2019)|| 0.782|
high · 72nd
|Currency||Sri Lankan rupee (Rs) (LKR)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (SLST)|
|ISO 3166 code||LK|
The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala, இலங்கை in Tamil) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. The capital of the country is Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte while the largest city is Colombo.
It was known as Ceylon before 1972, and Serendib and Sinhale, among other names, before that. It was South Asia's oldest democracy.
Sri Lanka has three main ethnic groups. They differ in their religions and origins, and there has often been difficulties between the groups. The total population of the island is over 20 million people, and rapidly expanding.
Other than these three main groups, there are burghers (descendants of colonial ancestors), malays and chinese.
In areas such as Dabana , Mahiyangaya ; lives the indigenous group called 'veddas' who are said to descend from Kuweni and Vijaya's son 'Jeewahaththa'.
Buddhist missionaries arrived from India in 250 BC during the time period of King Devanampiyatissa. The kings of the island, and eventually most of the Sinhalese people, became Buddhists. Legend has it that Buddha visited the island three times.
The island was subject to waves of European settlement and eventually colonisation. The Portuguese in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Dutch in the 17th and 18th centuries, and lastly the British from 1796 to 1948. The British traded as the others had done, but also developed plantations of coffee and tea. Tea was planted after a fungus destroyed the coffee plantations in 1869. The tea plantations were the basis of Sri Lankan prosperity for a hundred years. Lastly, rubber plantations were started in the early 20th century. In 1965, Ceylon became the world's leading exporter of tea, with 200,000 tonnes of tea being shipped internationally annually.
Independence from the British was got in 1948, together with Dominion status in the British Commonwealth of Nations. In 1972, Ceylon changed its name officially to the Republic of Sri Lanka, and is still a member of the Commonwealth.
National symbols of Sri Lanka
The Sri Lanka flag is also known as the Lion flag because of the Lion on it. The Lion is holding a sword in its right paw. There is a crimson background with four leaves in each corner. There is a yellow border. On the left of the flag, there are the colors green and saffron.
The lion represents bravery. The four leaves represent Karuna, Meththa, Muditha and Upeksha. The orange stripe represents the Sri Lankan Tamils and the green stripe represents the Sri Lankan Moors.
Sri Lanka has 9 provinces.
- List of rivers of Sri Lanka
- Sri Lanka at the Olympics
- Sri Lanka national football team
- History of Sri Lanka
- Burning of Jaffna library
Easter Sunday bombings
On April 21, 2019, bombings hit churches and hotels and left at least 290 people dead and 500 injured in the cities of cities of Colombo, Negombo and Batticaloa. According to officials a Sri Lankan group called National Thowheed Jamath was behind the attacks.
Most of those killed were Sri Lankan nationals, but there were also thirty-one foreigners who died, including eight British, eight Indian, two Turkish, two Australian, one Bangladeshi, one Portuguese and four American nationals.
- "Sri Jayewardenepura Kotte". https://www.britannica.com/place/Sri-Jayewardenepura-Kotte.
- "Colombo". https://www.britannica.com/place/Colombo.
- "Department of Official Languages". http://www.languagesdept.gov.lk/web/.
- "South Asia: Sri Lanka". CIA. 8 March 2022. https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/countries/sri-lanka/.
- "Ashik v Bandula And Others (Noise Pollution Case)". https://www.lawnet.gov.lk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/018-SLLR-SLLR-2007-V-1-ASHIK-v.-BANDULA-AND-OTHERSNoise-Pollution-Case.pdf.
- "Hon. Mahinda Yapa Abeywardena elected as the New Speaker". Parliament of Sri Lanka. 20 August 2020. https://parliament.lk/en/news-en/view/1878?category=6.
- "Mid-year population projection". http://www.statistics.gov.lk/PopHouSat/VitalStatistics/MidYearPopulation/Mid-year%20population%20by%20age%20group.pdf.
- "Census of Population and Housing 2011 Enumeration Stage February–March 2012". Department of Census and Statistics – Sri Lanka. http://www.statistics.gov.lk/PopHouSat/CPH2011/Pages/sm/CPH%202011_R1.pdf.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2019/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2017&ey=2024&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&pr1.x=67&pr1.y=10&c=273%2C524&s=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a=.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI?locations=LK.
- Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. . http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2020.pdf. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- "Archived copy". http://www.eswaran.com/History.pdf.
- Dominion of Ceylon: definition of Dominion of Ceylon in the Free Online Encyclopedia. Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. 
- "Sri Lanka attacks: Churches and hotels hit on Easter Sunday". https://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-asia-48002165.
- "Sri Lanka attacks: Who are the victims?". BBC News. 26 April 2019. https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-48002169.
- Official web portal of the Government of Sri Lanka
- Office of the President of Sri Lanka Archived 2007-08-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Ministry of Defence, Sri Lanka
- Central Bank of Sri Lanka Archived 2006-08-03 at the Wayback Machine
- World Terrorism Blog On Sri Lanka
- Board of Investment of Sri Lanka
- Sri Lanka Export Development Board
- Colombo Stock Exchange
- Sri Lankan Business Directory Archived 2018-08-09 at the Wayback Machine
- Virtual Library Sri Lanka
- The CIA World Factbook - Sri Lanka Archived 2018-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
- Sri Lanka - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
- Collection of slides of Sri Lanka, University of Pennsylvania library Archived 2018-11-18 at the Wayback Machine
- NIGHANTAYA | The Environment Friendly E Community | Sri Lanka[dead link]