Coffee in white cup

Coffee is a beverage prepared from roasted coffee beans. It's also a plant (Coffea) and the name of the drink that is made from this plant. The coffee plant is a bush or tree that can grow up to ten meters (about 32 feet) high, but is usually cut shorter. Coffee plants originally grew in Ethiopia, and now also grow in South America, Central America and Southeast Asia. They are an important crop for the economies of many countries.

The drink is made from the seeds of the coffee plant, called coffee beans. Coffee is usually served hot, and is a popular drink in many countries. Coffee contains a chemical called caffeine, a mild drug that keeps people awake.

To make a drink from coffee beans, the beans must first be specially prepared by drying the beans and then roasting. The beans are dried a short time after they are picked. This preserves them and makes them ready to be packed or roasted. Before the beans are made into a drink, they must be roasted or ground (crushed into tiny pieces in a coffee mill). When the ground coffee is placed into boiling water, the flavour and dark brown colour of the beans goes into the water. Making coffee is called brewing coffee. There are several different ways that coffee can be brewed.

Coffee contains a number of useful nutrients, including riboflavin, niacin, magnesium, potassium, and various phenolic compounds, or antioxidants.

Coffee types

Coffea arabica - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-189

There are two main types of coffee plants: coffea arabica and coffea robusta. Arabica is the most common. Most of the world's coffee is made from Arabica beans[1] Robusta is easier to grow in places where Arabica will not grow.

MNH DA 308-RUBI-0170 Coffea robusta L.Linden

Robusta is cheaper and has more caffeine than Arabica[2] and it is used in many commercial coffee products. But Robusta tastes bitter and acidic, so people only drink it with other things. Better quality Robustas are in some espresso blends.

In the past, people gave names to new Arabica coffees from the port they came from. The two oldest Arabica coffees are "Mocha" and "Java". Today, names are more specific. They tell us the country, region, and sometimes even the property where they come from.

Growing coffee

The traditional way to plant coffee is to put 20 seeds in a hole at the beginning of the rainy season. However, in this way about 50% of the seeds are wasted. They do not sprout. In Brazil, farmers grow coffee in a better way. They grow seedlings in nurseries. After six to twelve months, they move the young plants outside. Coffee is often grown along with other food crops such as corn, beans, or rice for a few years. This lets farmers get used to what coffee plants need to grow well.[3] Coffee plants grow in the area between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. This part of the world is called the bean belt or coffee belt.[4]

Single-Origin Coffee

Single-origin coffee is a term to describe the coffee varieties that are organically grown in a specific geographical area.[5] For this reason, the overall quality of single-origin coffee is attributed to the agroecological factors in the coffee plantations. External agro ecological factors such as altitudes, temperatures, and quality of the soil are the most significant determiners that play a role in flavor note formation for the green coffee beans inside the coffee cherries. [6]

Most of the time, single-origin coffee is the top-notch arabica varieties like Gayo Sumatra, Ethiopian Yirgacheffe, Lintong Sumatra, Kenya AA, and more varieties going on the list. However, premium-grade robusta can be considered single-origin varieties as long as it grows under an ideal growing conditions.

Preparing coffee

Coffee fruit (beans)
Coffee beans before roasting
Coffee beans after roasting


Some sorts of coffee taste better if the beans are aged. This means that after they are picked, the beans are dried and then kept from three to eight years. This "aging" gives the coffee a less acidic taste.[7] Coffee that has been aged is often mixed or "blended" with other coffee that is not aged.


Roasting is one of the important stages in making coffee beans into coffee. When a coffee bean is roasted, it grows nearly two times bigger and changes from green to yellow to brown.

The length of time that the coffee beans are roasted makes the coffee taste different. Some types of coffee, such as Mocha and Java, are roasted for a short time. It is easy to tell from the flavour where the coffee is from. When coffee is roasted for a long time, it is harder to tell the different types apart. Green coffee beans can be bought and roasted at home in the oven.


Before the coffee is made into a drink, it is ground in a small grinding machine called a coffee mill. The coffee mill breaks the beans into very small pieces. Coffee is turned into a drink in several different ways. For some ways of making coffee, such as espresso, it is best to have the coffee ground into fine powder. or other types of coffee-making, such as filtered coffee, the coffee is in larger pieces to stop it going through the filter. Finely ground coffee makes a stronger taste.


Decaffeination reduces the amount of caffeine in the coffee.


Coffee is made into a drink by putting the coffee into boiling water. This is called "brewing" coffee. There are many ways to brew coffee. Four of the most common are:

  • Boiling: The coffee and the water are put into a pot on top of the stove and boiled slowly together. This way of making coffee has been used for hundreds of years. It is the way that coffee is usually made in the Middle East, North Africa, Turkey and Greece.[8]
  • Pressure: The boiling water is forced through the ground coffee by a machine. This type of coffee is called Espresso and the machine is called an "Espresso machine" or "Coffee system". Espresso machines are often found in cafes and restaurants. Espresso is a very strong coffee that can be used to make other coffee drinks.[9]
  • Gravity: Filtered coffee is made by gravity because the boiling water falls from a machine onto the coffee. The coffee grounds are held in a paper or metal "filter" that the water can run through, but the little coffee pieces cannot. The water becomes coloured and flavoured as it runs through the coffee and into a coffee pot.[10]
  • Steeping: Boiling water is poured onto the coffee and it is allowed to stand for a little while, until the water has taken the colour and flavour. This is often done in a cafetière, which is a tall glass or coffee pot which has a special filter inside that can be pushed down when the coffee is ready so that the person does not drink the coffee grounds. Another way of steeping coffee is to have coffee grounds in a small packet, the right size to make one cup of coffee. The packet is placed in the cup and water poured over it. Then the packet is removed.[11]

How people drink their coffee

Greek coffee in a cup
Coffee can be drunk with food.
Cappuccino with whitey foam in Coffee house.
  • Black coffee is coffee with no milk in it.
  • White coffee is coffee with milk in it.
  • Café au lait is coffee made with a lot of hot milk. It is often sweet.
  • Espresso is very strong coffee. In Australia, it is often called a "short black".
  • Cappuccino is espresso with frothed milk (milk mixed with air). A well-made cappuccino should be made of strong coffee. When the frothy milk is poured gently into the coffee cup, it should be white on top and have a ring of darker coffee around the edge. Cappuccino coffee sometimes has cocoa sprinkled on top.
  • Latte is made like a cappuccino but with added milk and a very thin layer of foam.
  • "Flat white" is a double espresso where milk micro foam is added to the crema (an emulsion of the oils in the coffee beans when combined with hot water that floats) on the double espresso.
  • Americano is espresso with a lot of hot water.
  • Irish coffee is coffee with whiskey and with cream on the top.
  • Iced coffee is espresso in a tall glass with crushed ice, cold milk and ice cream.
  • Vietnamese style coffee (Cafe Sua Da) is filtered coffee poured over ice into a glass with sweet condensed milk (thick milk which has had the water removed).
  • Frappé has several meanings. It is a mix of instant coffee, milk, sugar, and foam. Another form of the drink is blended frozen coffee. And the last is a milkshake, a thick milkshake.

Instant coffee

"Instant coffee" is a very quick way to make a cup of coffee to drink. It is made in a factory and sold in jars or packets.[12] First, strong coffee is made using ground coffee and boiling water. Then, the coffee grounds are filtered out. The coffee liquid is dried out until nothing is left except granules (little crunchy pieces), or fine powder. This is then put into jars or packets. As soon as a spoonful of "instant coffee" is added to boiling water, it dissolves in the water to make coffee to drink. The taste can be very different from fresh coffee. Part of the reason for the different taste is that Robusta coffee beans are usually used for making instant coffee. Robusta coffee beans do not cost as much as Arabica.

Ready to drink coffee

Japanese Hot Coffee (41619985121)

Coffee is also sold, hot or cold, in cans and bottles. It is ready to drink. It is sold in vending machines and convenience stores with other soft drinks.

When people drink coffee

A coffee shop in France

The United States buys the most coffee; Germany is next. People in Finland drink the most coffee for each person. In Canada, the United States and Europe, some restaurants sell mainly coffee; they are referred to as "cafés" or "coffeehouses". Cafés often sell food, but the type of food is different from one country to another.

In some countries, for example, those in northern Europe, people like having coffee parties. At these parties, people have coffee and cake.

In many countries, people drink coffee at work; in the United States and England, for example, people drink it in the morning. In other countries, such as Mexico, people drink it in the evening to help them stay awake.

Health problems

Coffee contains the drug caffeine. Caffeine is a mild stimulant which helps to keep people awake. Caffeine, like many drugs, can be addictive and can cause health problems.[13]

Consuming high amounts of caffeine may increase the risk of anxiety, especially among people with panic disorder or social anxiety disorder. Less commonly, it may trigger mania and psychosis in those who are susceptible.[14]

Some studies have looked at the health risks of coffee. In February 2003, there was a study in Denmark of 18,478 women to find out if coffee had an effect on pregnancy and birth. It was found that if a woman drank between four and seven cups of coffee a day, it did not seem to make a big change to the number of babies that were born dead, (stillborn). But the women in the study who drank eight or more cups of coffee a day had three times as much chance of having a stillborn baby.[15][16]

For this, and other reasons, some people drink coffee substitutes or decaffeinated coffee instead.

The BMJ quotes a study that concluded that there are health benefits for drinking up to four coffee cups per day. However, drinking coffee is not recommended for pregnant women and for women who are in danger of fractured bones. According to the BMJ not everyone agrees with these findings[17]

Coffee Media

Related pages


  1. "Botanical Aspects". International Coffee Organization. Archived from the original on 2009-03-24. Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  2. Reynolds, Richard. "Robusta's Rehab". Coffee Geek. Archived from the original on 2007-08-13. Retrieved 2007-07-31.
  3. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Purdue.
  4. "Major coffee producers". National Geographic. 2015. Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 25 September 2015.
  5. David, Wahyudi; Intania, Mella; Purnama, Purba; Iswaldi, Ihsan (2023-02-06). "Characteristics of commercial single-origin organic coffee in Indonesia". Food Science and Technology. 43: e118522. doi:10.1590/fst.118522. ISSN 0101-2061. S2CID 256652659.
  6. Zakidou, Panagiota; Plati, Fotini; Matsakidou, Anthia; Varka, Evdoxia-Maria; Blekas, Georgios; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini (2021-07-29). "Single Origin Coffee Aroma: From Optimized Flavor Protocols and Coffee Customization to Instrumental Volatile Characterization and Chemometrics". Molecules. 26 (15): 4609. doi:10.3390/molecules26154609. ISSN 1420-3049. PMC 8346979. PMID 34361765.
  7. "Coffee Aging". Ring Surf. Retrieved December 11, 2007.
  8. Ukers, William Harrison (January 1, 1993). All about Coffee. Gale Research; 2d ed edition. p. 725. ISBN 978-0810340923.
  9. Rothstein, Scott. "Brewing Techniques". Retrieved 2007-07-19.
  10. Levy, Joel (November 2002). Really Useful: The Origins of Everyday Things. Firefly Books. p. 1948. ISBN 978-1552976227.
  11. Davids, Kenneth (1991). Coffee: A Guide to Buying, Brewing, and Enjoying. 101 Productions. p. 128. ISBN 978-1564265005.
  12. "Different Types of Instant Coffee". Presto Coffee Roasters. Retrieved 2021-06-30.
  13. James, J. E.; Stirling, K. P. (September 1983). "Caffeine: A summary of some of the known and suspected deleterious effects of habitual use". British Journal of Addiction. 78 (3): 251–8. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1983.tb02509.x. PMID 6354232.
  14. "Coffee: Benefits, nutrition, and risks". 2019-07-10. Retrieved 2021-06-30.
  15. Todd, Kelsey (26 June 2023) (in English). Coffee During Pregnancy: Cause for Concern?. Retrieved 26 June 2023. 
  16. Wisborg, Kirsten; Kesmodel, U.; Bech, B. H.; Hedegaard, M.; Henriksen, T. B. (22 February 2003). "Maternal consumption of coffee during pregnancy and stillbirth and infant death in first year of life: prospective study, British Medical Journal". BMJ. 326 (7386): 420. doi:10.1136/bmj.326.7386.420. PMC 149440. PMID 12595379.
  17. "Moderate coffee drinking "more likely to benefit health than to harm it" say experts | BMJ". Archived from the original on 2019-06-21. Retrieved 2019-06-13.

Other websites