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Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Caesalpinioideae
Genus: Caesalpinia
Species: C. echinata
Binomial name
Caesalpinia echinata
natural range

Brazilwood or Pau-Brasil, sometimes known as Pernambuco (Caesalpinia echinata syn. Guilandina echinata (Lam.) Spreng.) is a Brazilian tree. It has a dense, orange-red wood (which takes a high shine), and it is the most frequently used wood for making bows for string instruments from the violin family. The wood also gives a red dye called brazilin.

When Pedro Álvares Cabral found Brazil, he named it after the brazilwood that he found there.