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Republic of Nicaragua

República de Nicaragua
Flag of Nicaragua
Location of Nicaragua
and largest city
Escudo de Managua.svg Managua
12°9′N 86°16′W / 12.150°N 86.267°W / 12.150; -86.267
Official languagesSpanish
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Daniel Ortega (FSLN)
Omar Halleslevens
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence from Spain, Mexico and the Federal Republic of Central America
• Declared
15 September 1821
• Recognized
25 July 1850
• from the First Mexican Empire
1 July 1823
31 May 1838
• Revolution
19 July 1979
• Current constitution
9 January 1987
• Total
130,375 km2 (50,338 sq mi) (97th)
• Water (%)
• 2012 census
• Density
51/km2 (132.1/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2012 estimate
• Total
$26.666 billion[4]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2012 estimate
• Total
$10.506 billion[4]
• Per capita
Gini (2007)40.1
HDI (2012)Increase 0.599[5]
medium · 129th
CurrencyCórdoba (NIO)
Time zoneUTC−6 (CST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+505
ISO 3166 codeNI

Nicaragua is a country in Central America. It is officially called the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: República de Nicaragua). It has a size of 129,494 square kilometres. It is the largest country in Central America. It borders Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The capital of the country is Managua. Managua is the third-largest city in Central America. It is also the biggest city of Nicaragua. Almost a quarter of the population lives in the capital city.

The population of Nicaragua is approximately 6 million. The population is multicultural. The population includes indigenous native tribes from the Miskito Coast, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main language is Spanish. Some native tribes on the eastern coast speak their native languages. Some of these languages are Miskito, Sumo, and Rama. Some people speak English Creole. The mixture of cultures has created diversity in art and literature. Some famous Nicaraguan writers are Rubén Darío, Ernesto Cardenal, and Gioconda Belli.[6]

The biological diversity, warm tropical climate, and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination.[7][8]


  1. As shown on the Córdoba (bank notes and coins); see, for example, Banco Central de Nicaragua.
  2. "Nicaragua Demographics Profile 2011". Nicaragua. Index Mundi. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  3. "Población Total, estimada al 30 de Junio del año 2012" (in Spanish). National Nicaraguan Institute of Development Information. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Nicaragua". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2013-05-23. 
  5. United Nations Development Programme (2013). "Table 1: Human Development index and its components". Human Development Report 2013 The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. New York: United Nations. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  6. "Nicaragua, Eternal Land of Poets". Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  7. Dicum, G (2006-12-17). "The Rediscovery of Nicaragua". Travel Section. New York: TraveThe New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-26. 
  8. Davis, LS (2009-04-22). "Nicaragua: The next Costa Rica?". Mother Nature Network. MNN Holdings, LLC. Retrieved 2010-06-26.