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Republic of Nicaragua
República de Nicaragua
Motto: En Dios Confiamos  (Spanish)
"In God We Trust" [1]
Anthem: Salve a ti, Nicaragua (Spanish)
Hail to Thee, Nicaragua
and largest city
Escudo de Managua.svg Managua
12°9′N 86°16′W / 12.15°N 86.267°W / 12.15; -86.267
Official languages Spanish
Recognised regional languages
Ethnic groups (2011[2])
Government Unitary presidential constitutional republic
 -  President Daniel Ortega (FSLN)
 -  Vice President Omar Halleslevens
Legislature National Assembly
Independence from Spain, Mexico and the Federal Republic of Central America
 -  Declared 15 September 1821 
 -  Recognized 25 July 1850 
 -  from the First Mexican Empire 1 July 1823 
 -  from the Federal Republic of Central America 31 May 1838 
 -  Revolution 19 July 1979 
 -  Current constitution 9 January 1987 
 -  Total 130,375 km2 (97th)
50,193 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7.14
 -  2012 census 6,071,045[3]
 -  Density 51/km2 (155th)
114/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $26.666 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $4,458[4]
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $10.506 billion[4]
 -  Per capita $1,756[4]
Gini (2007)40.1
HDI (2012)Increase 0.599[5]
medium · 129th
Currency Córdoba (NIO)
Time zone CST (UTC−6)
Drives on the right
Calling code +505
Internet TLD .ni

Nicaragua is a country in Central America. It is officially called the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: República de Nicaragua). It has a size of 129,494 square kilometres. It is the largest country in Central America. It borders Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The capital of the country is Managua. Managua is the third-largest city in Central America. It is also the biggest city of Nicaragua. Almost a quarter of the population lives in the capital city.

The population of Nicaragua is approximately 6 million. The population is multicultural. The population includes indigenous native tribes from the Mosquito Coast, Europeans, Africans, Asians, and people from the Middle East. The main language is Spanish. Some native tribes on the eastern coast speak their native languages. Some of these languages are Miskito, Sumo, and Rama. Some people speak English Creole. The mixture of cultures has created diversity in art and literature. Some famous Nicaraguan writers are Rubén Darío, Ernesto Cardenal, and Gioconda Belli.[6]

The biological diversity, warm tropical climate, and active volcanoes make Nicaragua an increasingly popular tourist destination.[7][8]


  1. As shown on the Córdoba (bank notes and coins); see, for example, Banco Central de Nicaragua.
  2. "Nicaragua Demographics Profile 2011". Nicaragua. Index Mundi. 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
  3. "Población Total, estimada al 30 de Junio del año 2012" (in Spanish). National Nicaraguan Institute of Development Information. pp. 1–5. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Nicaragua". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2013-05-23.
  5. United Nations Development Programme (2013). "Table 1: Human Development index and its components". Human Development Report 2013 The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. New York: United Nations. Retrieved 2011-07-16.
  6. "Nicaragua, Eternal Land of Poets". Retrieved 2010-06-26.
  7. Dicum, G (2006-12-17). "The Rediscovery of Nicaragua". Travel Section. New York: TraveThe New York Times. Retrieved 2010-06-26.
  8. Davis, LS (2009-04-22). "Nicaragua: The next Costa Rica?". Mother Nature Network. MNN Holdings, LLC. Retrieved 2010-06-26.