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Republic of Tunisia
الجمهورية التونسية (language?)
République tunisienne (French)
Location of Tunisia in northern Africa
and largest city
|Ethnic groups||Arab-Berber 98%, European 1%, Jewish and other 1% |
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Legislature||Assembly of the Representatives of the People|
• Husainid Dynasty inaugurated
|15 July 1705|
• Independence from France
|20 March 1956|
|25 July 1957|
|7 November 1987|
|14 January 2011|
|10 February 2014|
|163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi) (91st)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
|71/km2 (183.9/sq mi) (133rd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2019)|| 0.740|
high · 95th
|Currency||Tunisian dinar (TND)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|ISO 3166 code||TN|
Before the Muslims
Since history has been recorded, there were Berber tribes living in what is now Tunisia. Most of them built little towns and ports along the coastline so they could trade with different travellers from everywhere in the Mediterranean Sea. Most of the travellers that used to pass by Tunisia were Phoenicians who started to settle on the Tunisian coast during the 10th Century BC. Later, in the 8th Century BC, Carthage was built by some settlers that came from Phoenicia and regions abroad. After many wars against Greece in 6th Century BC, Carthage dominated the Mediterranean Sea.
During the Second Punic War, Carthage invaded Italy with an army led by Hannibal. The series of wars between the Roman Empire and Carthage ended with the destruction of Carthage in the 2nd Century BC. Its territory in Africa became part of the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.
When the Roman Empire became weak, the Vandals occupied that region. This was in the 5th Century AD, and one hundred years after that, it became under the control of the Byzantine emperor Justinian.
Beginning of Islam
In the 7th Century, it was conquered by the Arab Muslims who built a city which they called Kairouan. This was the first Arab Muslim city in Tunisia. Many Muslim dynasties (monarchies) ruled Tunisia. One of the best known dynasties was the Zirids dynasty. The Zirids were Berber people and followed the rules of the Fatimides, a bigger dynasty in Cairo. When the Zirids angered the Fatimides, the Fatimides sent some tribes known as Banu Hilal who ravaged (destroyed and vandalized) Tunisia.
After a brief occupation of Tunisia by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th Century, the Almohad re-conquered it. After that came the Hafsids. In the last years of their reign, the Hafsids became weak and Spain took control of many cities on the coast until they were finally occupied by the Ottoman Empire.
Some controversial financial decisions (money-lending) taken by the Bey in mid-1800s in an attempt to repair the country led Tunisia to become under the control of France. Tunisia became officially a French protectorate in on May 12, 1881, but with the strong opposition of the kingdom of Italy because there was a huge Italian community in Tunisia.
World War II
General Erwin Rommel, the German commander in Africa, wished to defeat the Allies in Tunisia, as the Germans had done in the Battle of France when the Allies were inexperienced against the German Blitzkrieg. On February 19, 1943, Rommel launched an attack against the U.S. Forces, with his German and Italian troops, in the western area of Tunisia. That was a disaster for the United States.
After that, the Allies understood the importance of tank warfare. With better supplies than the Germans, they easily broke into the German lines in southern Tunisia on March 20, 1943. In May 11, 1943 the last German troops surrendered, followed two days later by the Italian troops.
Independence and revolution
Tunisia became independent in 1956 with the former Bey of Tunis as King. Prime Minister Habib Bourguiba became the first president in 1957 when it became a republic. Bourguiba focused on education and economic development. He was supportive of women's rights. However, he had a cult of personality around him and most of the power in the country was held by Bourguiba.
In 1987, Bourguiba was removed from power by Zine el Abidine Ben Ali. Ben Ali ruled as dictator of the country until 2011, when he was overthrown in a revolution. The revolution was the first major revolution of the Arab Spring. Tunisia began becoming more democratic, and in 2014, the country held its first free presidential election. The election was won by Beji Caid Essebsi, a secular, liberal candidate.
Tunisia is in the northern part of Africa. The Mediterranean Sea joins Tunisia in the north and east; the coastline of Tunisia on the Mediterranean Sea is about 1,300 km. Tunisia is also bordered by Algeria to the west and Libya to the south-east.
The Sahara Desert covers 40% of Tunisia. The other 60% is a fertile area.
Standard Arabic is the official language by the Tunisian constitution. But Tunisians speak Tunisian Arabic. Tunisian Arabic is a mix of many languages of people that live or lived in Tunisia. It is called Darija or Tunsi.
A small number of people living in Tunisia still speak a Berber dialect, known as Shelha.
Most people now living Tunisia are Maghrebin Arab. However, small groups of Berbers and Jews live in Tunisia.
Tunisia is divided into 24 governorates. They are:
The largest cities in Tunisia are:
||El Mourouj ||
Tunisia's economy has many sectors: agriculture (fruit, vegetable oil and vegetables), tourism (when people come from other countries to visit), mining (extracting goods from under the ground), and petroleum (fuel and gas oil). The government used to control the economy, but now it has sold some public companies. This is called privatization.
Tunisia was also the first Mediterranean country to make an agreement with the European Union. This association agreement was signed on March 1, 1995.
Tunisia has plans for two nuclear power stations, to be working by 2019.
- "Tunisia Constitution, Article 4". 26 January 2014. http://www.anc.tn/site/main/AR/docs/constit_proj_26012014.pdf.
- "Tunisian Constitution, Article 1". 26 January 2014. http://www.anc.tn/site/main/AR/docs/constit_proj_26012014.pdf. Translation by the University of Bern: "Tunisia is a free State, independent and sovereign; its religion is the Islam, its language is Arabic, and its form is the Republic."
- Arabic, Tunisian Spoken. Ethnologue (19 February 1999). Retrieved on 5 September 2015.
- "Tamazight language". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- "Nawaat – Interview avec l' Association Tunisienne de Culture Amazighe". Nawaat. https://nawaat.org/portail/2012/02/27/interview-avec-association-tunisienne-de-culture-amazigh/.
- Gabsi, Z. (2003). An outline of the Shilha (Berber) vernacular of Douiret (Southern Tunisia). PhD Thesis, Western Sydney University. http://researchdirect.uws.edu.au/islandora/object/uws:573.
- "Tunisian Amazigh and the Fight for Recognition – Tunisialive". Tunisialive. http://www.tunisia-live.net/2011/10/13/tunisian-amazigh-and-the-fight-for-recognition/.
- . https://www.researchgate.net/publication/51629627.
- "Tunisia". International Religious Freedom Report for 2011, United States Department of State – Bureau of Democracy Human Rights and Labor. https://2009-2017.state.gov/documents/organization/193121.pdf.
- Frosini, Justin; Biagi, Francesco (2014). Political and Constitutional Transitions in North Africa: Actors and Factors. Routledge. p. 4. . https://books.google.com/books?id=4FK2BQAAQBAJ&pg=PA4.
- Choudhry, Sujit; Stacey, Richard (2014) "Semi-presidential government in Tunisia and Egypt". International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance. Retrieved 7 January 2016.
- "National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia". National Institute of Statistics-Tunisia. http://www.ins.tn/en/themes/population.
- "Tunisia". International Monetary Fund. https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2018/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=38&pr.y=8&sy=2019&ey=2020&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=744&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=.
- "GINI index". World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/.
- Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene. United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. . http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2020.pdf. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- "Report on the Delegation of تونس.". Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. 2010. https://www.iana.org/reports/2010/tunis-report-16jul2010.html.
- Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman,
- "Portal of the Presidency of the Government- Tunisia: government, administration, civil service, public services, regulations and legislation". Pm.gov.tn. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- Italians in Tunisia & Maghreb
- 3,980,500 in the metropolitan area
- "Mongabay.com, population of Sfax". http://population.mongabay.com/population/tunisia/2467454/sfax. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- "Mongabay.com, population of Kairouan". http://population.mongabay.com/population/tunisia/2473449/kairouan. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- "Mongabay.com, population of Sousse". http://population.mongabay.com/population/tunisia/2464915/sousse. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- Part of Tunis metropolitan area
- "FITA, population of At Tadaman". http://www.fita.org/countries/tunisia.html?ma_rubrique=cadre. Retrieved 2009-10-09.
- Pronunciation: UK //, U.S. //; Arabic: تونس Tūnis (info • help); Berber: Tunest, ; French: Tunisie.
- Arabic: الجمهورية التونسية al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya (info • help); French: République tunisienne)
- The North Africa Journal Archived 2008-09-07 at the Wayback Machine business news
- Tunisia Media Online Archived 2008-10-09 at the Wayback Machine government-sourced
- News and Views of the Maghreb
- AllAfrica.com—Tunisia news headline links
- BBC News Country Profile—Tunisia
- Encyclopedia Britannica, Tunisia—Country Page
- Tunisia on arab.net
- CIA World Factbook—Tunisia
- Open Directory Project—Tunisia directory category
- country info & who's who
- Tunisland The Biggest Video Website For Everything Tunisian Archived 2020-01-15 at the Wayback Machine
- Everything about Tunisia Archived 2008-09-25 at the Wayback Machine
- Tunisian online demonstration as protest against dictatorship
- For the liberation of Political Prisoners in Tunisia
- The Tunisian law Archived 2005-12-25 at the Wayback Machine from Jurispedia
- Tunisia Daily
- List of catholic marriages in Tunisia 1801–1949 (in French)
- Tunisia Today (in French)
- Tunisian Community Center (the Organization of Tunisian-Americans)
- Tunisia Postcards
- Tunisia -Citizendium