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Republic of Mali
and largest city
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta|
• Prime Minister
|Abdoulaye Idrissa Maïga|
• from Francea
|20 June 1960|
• as Mali
|22 September 1960|
|1,240,192 km2 (478,841 sq mi) (24th)|
• Water (%)
• April 2009 census
|11.7/km2 (30.3/sq mi) (215th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2013)|| 0.344|
low · 182nd
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Time zone||UTC+0 (GMT)|
• Summer (DST)
|UTC+0 (not observed)|
|ISO 3166 code||ML|
Mali is a landlocked country (a country entirely surrounded by land) in West Africa. Mali is bordered by Algeria on the north, Niger on the east, Burkina Faso and the Côte d'Ivoire on the south, Guinea on the south-west, and Senegal and Mauritania on the west. Physical features of Mali include the Sahara desert in the north, with the Niger River and Sénégal River in the southern part of the country. As of a July 2011 estimate, Mali has a population of approximately 14,000,000 people. Mali has a total area of 1,220,190 square kilometres (471,120 sq mi). Most of the people live in the southern part of the country, with Mali's capital and most populated city being Bamako.
The Mandé people founded several kingdoms in the Sahel. This was a big area that included Mali. These kingdoms included the Ghana Empire, the Mali Empire, and the Songhai Empire. Timbuktu was an important city in these empires because a lot of trade across the Sahara Desert went there. Timbuktu was also a good place for learning. The Songhai Empire became much smaller after a Moroccan attack in 1591.
France invaded Mali in 1880. After that, France owned Mali. France gave Mali the names French Sudan and the Sudanese Republic. At some times it also included other nearby countries. In early 1959, Mali and Senegal united and they became the Mali Federation. They became independent from France on June 20, 1960. Senegal left the Mali Federation a few months later. The Republic of Mali, with Modibo Keïta as the first president, left the French Community on September 22, 1960.
There was a coup in Mali in 1968. Modibo Keïta lost his job and was put in prison. Mali was then ruled by Moussa Traoré until 1991. He treated the country badly, and so there was another coup in 1991 after protests against the government, and a new constitution was made. The leader of the country was then Amadou Toumani Touré.
In 1992, Alpha Oumar Konaré won Mali's first democratic election. President Konaré won again in 1997 and he made big political and economic changes. In 2002, Amadou Toumani Touré won the election and he started his second term as head of state. He was a retired general and was the military leader of the 1991 coup. Today, Mali is one of the least stable countries in Africa.
Regions and cercles
The regions and district are:
Most of Mali is part of the Sahara Desert. Mali is does not have any sea coast. It is landlocked. Mali does not have many mountains. Flat areas in the north are covered by sand. Savanna is around the Niger River in the south. The climate is dry. The dry season is hot and dusty. There are many natural resources in Mali, including gold, uranium, phosphates, kaolinite, salt, and limestone.
Mali is one of the poorest countries in the world. 65% of its land area is desert or something similar. There have been several long droughts over the last hundred years. Therefore, most economic activity is near the Niger River.
About 10% of the people are nomads and 80% of workers have jobs in farming and fishing. Industry is mainly to process farm products. Women also do pottery and the pots are bought and taken to markets. Many foreign tourists like the traditional methods which the women use to make the pots.
In 1997, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) recommended a programme for changing the economy and the government followed this. Several international companies started exploring for larger amounts of gold in 1996-1998, and the Malian government thinks that Mali will become an important gold exporter soon.
There are several ethnic and religious groups in Mali.
- Mandé (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke): 50%
- Peul (Fula/Fulani): 17%
- Voltaic: 12%
- Songhai: 6%
- Tuareg and Moor: 10%
- Others: 5%
These religions are common in Mali.
About 90% of people from Mali follow Sunni Islam, but they do not always forget their traditional religions. Muslims have their own schooling system. The number of Muslims from Mali who go to Mecca is increasing and some study in Arab countries. About 1% of the people are Christians. When Mali was under French control, Christian teachers were sent to Islamic areas.
The language of Mali under French rule was French, but now not many people outside towns can read or write this language. However, about 60% of the people use other languages well. Many people can read and write in (the most popular spoken language). This language has its own alphabet, called . Other people can read and write in Arabic, after going to an Islamic school. One of the oldest universities in the world is Sankore University in Timbuktu. It began in the 1400s.
- Presidency of Mali: Symboles de la République, L'Hymne National du Mali. Koulouba.pr.ml. Retrieved on 4 May 2012.
- "Mali preliminary 2009 census". Institut National de la Statistique. http://instat.gov.ml/voir_actu.aspx?lactu=44. Retrieved 12 January 2010.
- "Mali". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2013/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=46&pr.y=15&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=678&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
- "Gini Index". World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI/. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
- "Mali". United States Department of State. 2011 [last update]. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2828.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2011. "Administratively, Mali is divided into eight regions and the capital district of Bamako, each under the authority of an appointed governor."
- Imperato, Gavin (2006). "From Here to Timbuctoo: A story of discovery in West Africa". Haverford. http://www.haverford.edu/publications/Fall%2006/Timbuctoo.htm. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "The Embassy of Mali in Washington, DC". http://www.maliembassy.us/.
- "Mali Country Specific Information". http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_962.html.
- "Maliweb" (in French). http://www.maliweb.net/.