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|State of Texas|
|Anthem: "Texas, Our Texas"|
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
|Before statehood||Republic of Texas|
|Admitted to the Union||December 29, 1845 (28th)|
|Largest metro||Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex|
|• Governor||Greg Abbott (R)|
|• Lieutenant Governor||Dan Patrick (R)|
|• Upper house||Senate|
|• Lower house||House of Representatives|
|U.S. senators||John Cornyn (R)|
Ted Cruz (R)
|U.S. House delegation||23 Republicans|
13 Democrats (list)
|• Total||268,596 sq mi (695,662 km2)|
|• Land||261,232 sq mi (676,587 km2)|
|• Water||7,365 sq mi (19,075 km2) 2.7%|
|Elevation||1,700 ft (520 m)|
|Highest elevation||8,751 ft (2,667.4 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|• Density||108/sq mi (40.6/km2)|
|• Density rank||26th|
|• Median household income||$59,206|
|• Income rank||24th|
|• Official language||No official language|
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
|• Spoken language||Predominantly English;|
Spanish is spoken by a sizable minority
|Majority of state||UTC−06:00 (Central)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−05:00 (CDT)|
|El Paso, Hudspeth, and northwestern Culberson counties||UTC−07:00 (Mountain)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−06:00 (MDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||US-TX|
|Latitude||25°50′ N to 36°30′ N|
|Longitude||93°31′ W to 106°39′ W|
|The Flag of Texas.|
|The Seal of Texas.|
|Bird(s)||Northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos)|
|Fish||Guadalupe bass (Micropterus treculii)|
|Flower(s)||Bluebonnet (Lupinus spp., namely Texas bluebonnet, L. texensis)|
|Insect||Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)|
|Mammal(s)||Texas longhorn, nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)|
|Reptile||Texas horned lizard (Phrynosoma cornutum)|
|Tree||Pecan (Carya illinoinensis)|
|Shell||Lightning whelk (Busycon perversum pulleyi)|
|Slogan(s)||The Friendly State|
|Other||Molecule: Buckyball (For more, see article)|
|Released in 2004|
|Lists of United States state insignia|
Texas has been controlled by Spain, France, the Confederate States of America, and Mexico. It declared its independence from Mexico in 1836. It was its own country, the Republic of Texas, for 9 years (1836-1845).
There are many tourist attractions in Texas. Fort Worth is known for its stockyards. Amarillo is known for the cattle business and stockyards. In Dallas, industrial technology companies including Texas Instruments and EDS have their home offices.
San Antonio has The Alamo. Houston has the Johnson Space Center. Austin has the University of Texas at Austin. Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas Tech University in Lubbock, Baylor University in Waco and the University of North Texas in Denton are other important universities in the state.
The state's name derives from táyshay, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai (a Native American tribe), which means "allies" or "friends."
Texas was first explored in 1528 by Spanish explorers on accident (they were shipwrecked on the coast). It did not become a colony until 1685, when France claimed it. In response, Spain started a rival colony in 1691 by setting up a religious outpost in the eastern part of Texas. Spain did not come back to Texas until 1716 to protect its colonies in the west from French forces. Two years later, San Antonio was started.
The pressure between the Spaniards and Native Americans in East Texas stopped many settlers from coming to Texas. To stop the violence and the increasing Native American raids, Spain called a truce between many tribes in 1745 and 1789.
Tensions rose in Texas after the United States bought a large amount of nearby land from France in 1803. This land was called the Louisiana Purchase. People began wondering whether Spain or the United States could claim Texas.
Mexico won the Mexican War of Independence in 1821. Mexico, including Texas, was free from the Spanish Empire. Americans and other settlers came into Texas when Mexico allowed non-Spanish settlers to settle here. After many settlers came to Texas, Mexico started taxing non-citizens. This outraged many settlers.
Those from the South were even more outraged because Mexico banned all slavery in 1829. Many southerners saw slavery as a way of life. They brought enslaved African Americans to work as field hands in the production of cotton, corn, and sugar.
On March 2, 1836, Texas declared independence from Mexico and soon they were at war. Texas won, but Mexico refused to recognize Texas as an independent. Texas soon asked to become a state of the United States. Years later, in 1845, the US added Texas as a state, and Mexico broke off diplomatic relations. Mexico resisted offers by the U.S. to buy land extending from Texas to the Pacific Ocean. In 1846, a dispute over the border between Texas and Mexico resulted in armed conflict, and the Mexican-American War began. The United States won the war, and by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo won lands that later formed the states of California, Arizona, Nevada, Utah, New Mexico, southwestern Colorado, and southwestern Wyoming. Mexico received 15 million dollars and gave up its claims to Texas.
After Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States, Texas joined the newly formed Confederate States of America in 1861 and fought in the American Civil War in an attempt to become independent from the United States. The Confederates lost to the Union (the United States) in 1865. Texas was restored to full representation in Congress on March 30, 1870.
On January 10, 1901, oil was found in Texas, leading to the founding of a richer economy. During a time when the economy was bad, many people left Texas. Texas did not regain its population it lost until the 1950s and 60s. In recent years, Texas has been exploring technology and computers.
Texas is the second biggest state in the Union (after Alaska) and is bigger than every European country except Russia. It has mountains, forests, deserts, plains, and coasts. The largest river in Texas is the Rio Grande, which forms the border between Mexico and the United States throughout south Texas. The highest mountain in Texas is Guadalupe Peak.
- "El Capitan". NGS data sheet. U.S. National Geodetic Survey. http://www.ngs.noaa.gov/cgi-bin/ds_mark.prl?PidBox=CD0994. Retrieved October 20, 2011.
- "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120722022527/http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
- Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
- "USA: States (U.S. States)—Population Statistics, Charts and Map". http://citypopulation.de/en/usa/states/admin/.
- "National Population Totals and Components of Change: 2010-2019". U.S. Census Bureau. January 9, 2020. https://www.census.gov/data/tables/time-series/demo/popest/2010s-national-total.html. Retrieved January 9, 2020.
- "Median Annual Household Income". http://kff.org/other/state-indicator/median-annual-income/?currentTimeframe=0. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
- Texas—Languages. MLA. https://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=48&mode=state_tops&ll=all. Retrieved April 15, 2010.
- "Mountain Time Zone Boundary". https://www.timetemperature.com/tzus/mountain_time_zone.shtml.