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New Mexico

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State of New Mexico
Estado de Nuevo México  (Spanish)
Yootó Hahoodzo  (Navajo)
Flag of New MexicoOfficial seal of New Mexico
Anthem: "O Fair New Mexico" and "Así Es Nuevo México"
File:"O Fair New Mexico" - Regional anthem of New Mexico.oga
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodNuevo México. (1598–1848)
New Mexico Territory (1850–1912)
Admitted to the UnionJanuary 6, 1912 (47th)
CapitalSanta Fe
Largest cityAlbuquerque
Largest metroGreater Albuquerque
 • GovernorMichelle Lujan Grisham (D)
 • Lieutenant GovernorHowie Morales (D)
LegislatureNew Mexico Legislature
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
U.S. senators
U.S. House delegation (list)
 • Total121,590[1] sq mi (314,917 km2)
 • Land121,298[1] sq mi (314,161 km2)
 • Water292[1] sq mi (757 km2)  0.24%
Area rank5th
5,701 ft (1,741 m)
Highest elevation13,168 ft (4,013.4 m)
Lowest elevation
(Red Bluff Reservoir on Texas border[3][4])
2,845 ft (868 m)
 • Total2,096,829
 • Rank36th
 • Density17.2/sq mi (6.62/km2)
 • Density rank45th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
 • Spoken language
Time zones
entire state (legally)UTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Nara Visa (informally)UTC−06:00 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (CDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-NM
Trad. abbreviationN.M., N.Mex.
Latitude31°20′ N to 37°N
Longitude103° W to 109°3′ W
New Mexico State symbols
Flag of New Mexico.svg
The Flag of New Mexico.

Seal of New Mexico.svg
The Seal of New Mexico.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) Greater roadrunner
Fish Rio Grande cutthroat trout
Flower(s) Yucca
Grass Blue grama
Insect Tarantula Hawk Wasp
Mammal(s) American black bear
Reptile New Mexico whiptail
Tree Two-needle piñon

Inanimate insignia
Colors Red and yellow
Food Chile peppers, pinto beans, and biscochitos
Fossil Coelophysis
Gemstone Turquoise

Route marker(s)
New Mexico Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of New Mexico
Released in 2008

Lists of United States state insignia

New Mexico is a state of the United States of America. It is considered part of the American Southwest and is bordered by Texas to the east, Oklahoma to the northeast, Colorado to the north, and Arizona to the west. The northwest corner of the state also touches Utah. This area is known as the Four Corners because four states meet there. The state has the nickname Land of Enchantment. It has been inhabited since ancient times by the Pueblo people, it was first named and founded as Nuevo México (New Mexico) in the 1500s by Spain. The state’s ancient Native American and Hispanic history have given New Mexico a unique food type called New Mexican cuisine, and a distinct music style called New Mexico music.

New Mexico became a state on 6 January 1912 and became the 47th state accepted into the United States. The state capital is Santa Fe. New Mexico's population is 2,096,829 as of the July 1, 2019 population estimate from the U.S. Census Bureau. Most of the people live in the biggest city, Albuquerque. New Mexico is home to one of the longest trams in the world, the Sandia Peak Tramway, in Albuquerque and one of worlds longest zip lines, the Apache Eagle ZipRider, in Ruidoso.


The climate for most of the state is generally semi-arid. In the summer it can be very hot in southern New Mexico. The temperature is sometimes over 100 °F (37.8 °C) with lows over 70 °F (21.1 °C). It occasionally snows in the northern part of the state in the winter. It is drier in the southern portion of the state, and it rarely snows. New Mexico is usually affected by the North American monsoon from mid June to late September.


New Mexico is the long-time home of the Pueblo people, a group of Native Americans. The area was named Nuevo México (New Mexico) by the Spanish in the mid-1500s and officially settled in 1598, its capital Santa Fe was selected in 1610. In the late 1600s, the Pueblo people revolted against the Spanish. The Spanish returned twelve years later, and made a better attempt at giving the Pueblos better representation in New Mexico’s society and government. One such Spanish governor of New Mexico, that is most well known for his work with Native Americans, was named Tomás Vélez Cachupín.

When Mexico became independent in the early 1800s, New Mexico was part of it. Mexico wasn’t successful in representing the New Mexican people, which lead to another revolt called the Chimayo Rebellion.

In 1846, the United States and Mexico went to war over a border dispute in Texas (a former state of Mexico that, after being its own country for a time joined the US), and the United States won the war. The peace treaty the two countries signed gave what is now the American Southwest to the United States. While most of what was then Northern Mexico did not have a large amount of people living in it, New Mexico had population centers in Pueblo and Spanish towns, especially along the Rio Grande river and in the Sangre de Cristo mountains. The New Mexican citizens living there were allowed to stay if they agreed to become US Citizens; over 90% did.

After some time as a territory, the area became a state in 1912.

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